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Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
DSM Nutritional Products, Human Nutrition and Health, No.1-3 Xinyuannanlu, Beijing 100027, China
DSM Nutritional Products, Research Center, 476 Libing Road, Shanghai 201203, China
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2013; in revised form: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Abstract: Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies) on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study) on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98). Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36). In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.
Keywords: vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; early life; pregnancy; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Dong, J.-Y.; Zhang, W.; Chen, J.J.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Han, S.-F.; Qin, L.-Q. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3551-3562.
Dong J-Y, Zhang W, Chen JJ, Zhang Z-L, Han S-F, Qin L-Q. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3551-3562.
Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Weiguo; Chen, Jiong J.; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Han, Shu-Fen; Qin, Li-Qiang. 2013. "Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3551-3562.