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Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3551-3562; doi:10.3390/nu5093551
Review

Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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Received: 26 July 2013; in revised form: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [193 KB, updated 23 September 2013; original version uploaded 12 September 2013]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies) on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study) on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98). Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36). In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.
Keywords: vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; early life; pregnancy; meta-analysis vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; early life; pregnancy; meta-analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, J.-Y.; Zhang, W.; Chen, J.J.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Han, S.-F.; Qin, L.-Q. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3551-3562.

AMA Style

Dong J-Y, Zhang W, Chen JJ, Zhang Z-L, Han S-F, Qin L-Q. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3551-3562.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Weiguo; Chen, Jiong J.; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Han, Shu-Fen; Qin, Li-Qiang. 2013. "Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3551-3562.


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