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Special Issue "Nutrition and Respiratory Disease"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Lisa Wood

Associate Professor, School of Biomedical Science and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Hunter Medical Research Insititute Building, Level 2 West Wing, Kookaburra Crt, New Lambton Heights, NSW, Australia, 2305
E-Mail
Fax: +612 4042 0046
Interests: nutrition, inflammation, immunity, antioxidants, fatty acids, obesity, respiratory disease, asthma, COPD

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • asthma
  • COPD
  • lung function
  • lung volumes
  • asthma control
  • exacerbations
  • airway hyperresponsiveness
  • nutrition
  • antioxidants
  • fruit and vegetables
  • carotenoids
  • flavonoids
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin C
  • fatty acids
  • saturated fat
  • omega-3 fatty acids
  • obesity

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Complex Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplementation on in Vitro Neonatal Mononuclear Cell Responses to Allergens
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3337-3351; doi:10.3390/nu5093337
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low maternal dietary vitamin E (but not vitamin C) intake during pregnancy has been associated with increased in vitro cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) proliferative responses, childhood wheezing and asthma. We investigated whether these associations reflect direct effects of vitamin E by investigating
[...] Read more.
Low maternal dietary vitamin E (but not vitamin C) intake during pregnancy has been associated with increased in vitro cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) proliferative responses, childhood wheezing and asthma. We investigated whether these associations reflect direct effects of vitamin E by investigating the effects of supplementing CBMC cultures with physiological concentrations of vitamin E. CBMC from seventy neonates were cultured supplemented with either nothing, α-tocopherol or ascorbic acid. Proliferative, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β responses were measured. In general, vitamin E supplementation was associated with a trend for reduced proliferative responses after stimulation with antigens and house dust mite, and with increased proliferation after stimulation with timothy grass allergen. There was a trend for CBMC cultures to exhibit decreased secretion of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4. Supplementation with vitamin C had no effect on CBMC proliferation, but increased IFN-γ and IL-4 production, and decreased IL-10 production. In conclusion, in vitro vitamin E and C supplementation of CBMC modifies neonatal immune function, but not in a manner predicted by observational epidemiological studies. The observed associations between vitamin E and childhood respiratory disease are complex, and the nature and form of nutritional intervention need to be carefully considered before inclusion in trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Nutrition and Respiratory Health—Feature Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1618-1643; doi:10.3390/nu7031618
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2015 / Accepted: 15 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diet and nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for the development, progression and management of obstructive lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This review examines the relationship between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and weight status in obstructive
[...] Read more.
Diet and nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for the development, progression and management of obstructive lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This review examines the relationship between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and weight status in obstructive lung diseases, at different life stages, from in-utero influences through childhood and into adulthood. In vitro and animal studies suggest important roles for various nutrients, some of which are supported by epidemiological studies. However, few well-designed human intervention trials are available to definitively assess the efficacy of different approaches to nutritional management of respiratory diseases. Evidence for the impact of higher intakes of fruit and vegetables is amongst the strongest, yet other dietary nutrients and dietary patterns require evidence from human clinical studies before conclusions can be made about their effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Vitamin E Isoforms as Modulators of Lung Inflammation
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4347-4363; doi:10.3390/nu5114347
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asthma and allergic diseases are complex conditions caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Clinical studies suggest a number of protective dietary factors for asthma, including vitamin E. However, studies of vitamin E in allergy commonly result in seemingly conflicting outcomes.
[...] Read more.
Asthma and allergic diseases are complex conditions caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Clinical studies suggest a number of protective dietary factors for asthma, including vitamin E. However, studies of vitamin E in allergy commonly result in seemingly conflicting outcomes. Recent work indicates that allergic inflammation is inhibited by supplementation with the purified natural vitamin E isoform α-tocopherol but elevated by the isoform γ-tocopherol when administered at physiological tissue concentrations. In this review, we discuss opposing regulatory effects of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol on allergic lung inflammation in clinical trials and in animal studies. A better understanding of the differential regulation of inflammation by isoforms of vitamin E provides a basis towards the design of clinical studies and diets that would effectively modulate inflammatory pathways in lung disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
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Open AccessReview Adiponectin: An Attractive Marker for Metabolic Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4115-4125; doi:10.3390/nu5104115
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease which may be complicated by development of co-morbidities including metabolic disorders. Metabolic disorders commonly associated with this disease contribute to lung function impairment and mortality. Systemic inflammation appears to be a major
[...] Read more.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease which may be complicated by development of co-morbidities including metabolic disorders. Metabolic disorders commonly associated with this disease contribute to lung function impairment and mortality. Systemic inflammation appears to be a major factor linking COPD to metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue seems to interfere with systemic inflammation in COPD patients by producing a large number of proteins, known as “adipokines”, involved in various processes such as metabolism, immunity and inflammation. There is evidence that adiponectin is an important modulator of inflammatory processes implicated in airway pathophysiology. Increased serum levels of adiponectin and expression of its receptors on lung tissues of COPD patients have recently highlighted the importance of the adiponectin pathway in this disease. Further, in vitro studies have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity for this adipokine at the level of lung epithelium. This review focuses on mechanisms by which adiponectin is implicated in linking COPD with metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet?
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3506-3530; doi:10.3390/nu5093506
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF) analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact with
[...] Read more.
Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF) analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact with obese children and adolescents facing discrimination and stigmatization in many areas of their lives leading to body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression. Indeed, obesity is recognised as an important risk factor for the development of several chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer, asthma and metabolic syndrome. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of obesity and may possibly explain the link between obesity and chronic disease, in particular the increased incidence, prevalence and severity of asthma in obese individuals. There is now strong evidence for infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells into adipose tissue that drives systemic inflammation and subsequent end organ damage. In addition to adipocytes, the key adipose tissue resident immune cells are macrophages and mast cells. Immunometabolism, as an emerging field of investigation, explores the pivotal role of these immune cells in translating immunological changes to metabolic effects in obesity. Abundance of free fatty acids, along with other inflammatory cytokines shift the balance of metabolic homeostasis to pro-inflammatory status by influencing the development of inflammatory cell lineage, which, further exhibits distinct functional phenotypes. There is emerging evidence for macrophage activation and functional polarization of an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype of macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Similarly, studies in both obese humans and murine models reveal the pathognomic presence of an increased number of mast cells in visceral adipose tissue. These suggest a possible contribution of mast cells to the unique metabolome of obese asthma. This review examines proposed multilevel interactions between metabolic and immune systems in obese asthmatics that underlie the negative effects of obesity and may offer significant therapeutic promise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
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Open AccessReview Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3399-3423; doi:10.3390/nu5093399
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 29 August 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and
[...] Read more.
Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Improving Asthma during Pregnancy with Dietary Antioxidants: The Current Evidence
Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3212-3234; doi:10.3390/nu5083212
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of
[...] Read more.
The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D Deficiency and the Lung: Disease Initiator or Disease Modifier?
Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 2880-2900; doi:10.3390/nu5082880
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem and has been associated with an increased incidence and severity of many diseases including diseases of the respiratory system. These associations have largely been demonstrated epidemiologically and have formed the basis of the justification
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem and has been associated with an increased incidence and severity of many diseases including diseases of the respiratory system. These associations have largely been demonstrated epidemiologically and have formed the basis of the justification for a large number of clinical supplementation trials with a view to improving disease outcomes. However, the trials that have been completed to date and the ongoing experimental studies that have attempted to demonstrate a mechanistic link between vitamin D deficiency and lung disease have been disappointing. This observation raises many questions regarding whether vitamin D deficiency is truly associated with disease pathogenesis, is only important in the exacerbation of disease or is simply an indirect biomarker of other disease mechanisms? In this review, we will briefly summarize our current understanding of the role of vitamin D in these processes with a focus on lung disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Flavonoids and Asthma
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2128-2143; doi:10.3390/nu5062128
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past
[...] Read more.
Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past two decades. Although the precise reasons that have caused this increase remain unknown, dietary change is thought to be one of the environmental factors. Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, possess antioxidant and anti-allergic traits, as well as immune-modulating activities. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and CD40 ligand expression by high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-expressing cells, such as mast cells and basophils. They also inhibit IL-4-induced signal transduction and affect the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T-cells through their inhibitory effect on the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several epidemiological studies suggest that an increase in flavonoid intake is beneficial for asthma. Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these human studies are currently limited; further validation is required to clarify whether an appropriate intake of flavonoids may constitute dietary treatment and for part of a preventive strategy for asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Undernutrition in Patients with COPD and Its Treatment
Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1316-1335; doi:10.3390/nu5041316
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung and whole body caused mainly by tobacco smoking. Patients with advanced COPD are in a state of undernutrition, referred to as pulmonary cachexia; the exercise performance and quality of life
[...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung and whole body caused mainly by tobacco smoking. Patients with advanced COPD are in a state of undernutrition, referred to as pulmonary cachexia; the exercise performance and quality of life (QOL) of these patients are deteriorated, the vital prognosis is unfavorable, and the medico-economic burden posed by poorly nourished COPD patients is high. The mainstays of COPD treatment are pharmacotherapy, mainly with bronchodilators, and non-pharmacotherapeutic approaches such as respiratory rehabilitation and nutrition counseling. Nutritional supplement therapy, consisting primarily of high calorie intake, has been demonstrated to be effective for maintaining and improving the muscle strength and exercise tolerance in poorly nourished COPD patients. The efficacy of intake of various nutrients, besides a high calorie intake, for amelioration of the disease state of COPD has also been reported. The roles of adipokines in the pathophysiology of COPD have begun to receive attention recently, and not only their regulatory effects on appetite and nutritional status, but also their influence on systemic inflammation have been increasingly clarified. We review the papers on COPD and nutrition and discuss the role of nutritional supplement therapy in the treatment of COPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessProject Report Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3713-3729; doi:10.3390/nu5093713
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in
[...] Read more.
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)

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