Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3447-3460; doi:10.3390/nu5093447
Article

Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

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Received: 2 July 2013; in revised form: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.
Keywords: zinc; Giardia lamblia; giardiasis; micronutrients; immune response; IgG; mice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iñigo-Figueroa, G.; Méndez-Estrada, R.O.; Quihui-Cota, L.; Velásquez-Contreras, C.A.; Garibay-Escobar, A.; Canett-Romero, R.; Astiazarán-García, H. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3447-3460.

AMA Style

Iñigo-Figueroa G, Méndez-Estrada RO, Quihui-Cota L, Velásquez-Contreras CA, Garibay-Escobar A, Canett-Romero R, Astiazarán-García H. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3447-3460.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Velásquez-Contreras, Carlos A.; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Canett-Romero, Rafael; Astiazarán-García, Humberto. 2013. "Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3447-3460.

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