Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3730-3739; doi:10.3390/nu5093730
Review

Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide

Received: 4 July 2013; in revised form: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Iron is an element necessary for cells due to its capacity of transporting oxygen and electrons. One of the important co-morbidities in heart failure is iron deficiency. Iron has relevant biological functions, for example, the formation of haemoglobin, myoglobin and numerous enzymatic groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency increases with the severity of heart failure. For a long time, the influence of iron deficiency was underestimated especially in terms of worsening of cardiovascular diseases and of developing anaemia. In recent years, studies with intravenous iron agents in patients with iron deficiency and cardiovascular diseases indicated new insights in the improvement of therapy. Experimental studies support the understanding of iron metabolism. Many physicians remain doubtful of the use of intravenous iron due to reports of side effects. The aim of this review is to describe iron metabolism in humans, to highlight the influence of iron deficiency on the course and symptoms of heart failure, discuss diagnostic tools of iron deficiency and provide guidance on the use of intravenous iron.
Keywords: heart failure; iron deficiency; anaemia; metabolism
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [228 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 25 September 2013 09:03 CEST]
The original version is still available [228 KB, uploaded 23 September 2013 08:44 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ebner, N.; von Haehling, S. Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3730-3739.

AMA Style

Ebner N, von Haehling S. Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3730-3739.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ebner, Nicole; von Haehling, Stephan. 2013. "Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3730-3739.

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert