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Special Issue "Nutrition and Infectious Diseases"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mark S. Kuhlenschmidt

Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave., Urbana, IL 61802, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 217-333-9039
Fax: +1 217 244 7421
Interests: microbial adhesion; host-pathogen interactions; infectious disease; apicomplexan parasites; nutriceuticals; receptor therapy; complex carbohydrate biochemistry; neoglycoconjugates; lipids (LPUFA)

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charges (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs) for well prepared manuscripts submitted before 30 June 2012. The APC for manuscripts submitted from 1 July 2012 onwards are 1000 CHF per accepted paper. In addition, a fee of 250 CHF may apply if English editing or extensive revisions must be undertaken by the Editorial Office.

Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643) is an Open Access journal, which is free to access and read on the Internet. MDPI guarantees that no university library or individual reader will ever have to buy a subscription or buy access through pay-per-view fees to access the articles published in the journal. Hence, MDPI does not have any income from selling subscriptions to the print or online version of this journal or from pay-per-view fees. In order to cover the costs of providing and maintaining a publication infrastructure, managing the journals, and processing the manuscripts through peer-review and the editorial procedure, the journal uses a form of conditional submission fee referred to as Article Processing Charge (APC).

For Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643), authors are asked to pay a fee of 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs) per processed paper, but only if the article is accepted for publication in this journal after peer-review and possible revision of the manuscript. Note that many national and private research funding organizations and universities explicitly cover such fees for articles originated in funded research projects. Discounts are available for authors from institutes that participate with MDPI's membership program.

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Keywords

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Nutrition
  • Undernutrition
  • Malnutrition
  • Obesity
  • Nutriceuticals
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Nutritional enteropathy
  • Vaccine
  • Immunization
  • Inflammation
  • Immunology
  • Immunomodulation
  • Macrophage
  • Cytokines
  • Pathogenesis
  • Virus
  • Parasites
  • Bacteria
  • Opportunistic Infections
  • Pulmonary
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Diarrhea
  • Epidemiology,
  • Mineral Metabolism,
  • Micronutrients,
  • Macronutrients,
  • Biomarkers,
  • Tropical Medicine,
  • Africa,
  • Sub-Saharan

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3447-3460; doi:10.3390/nu5093447
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the
[...] Read more.
Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Non-Viable Lactobacillus reuteri DSMZ 17648 (Pylopass™) as a New Approach to Helicobacter pylori Control in Humans
Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3062-3073; doi:10.3390/nu5083062
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prevalence of infections by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen involved in a number of gastrointestinal diseases, remains high in developing countries. Management of infections by eradication is not always an option. Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSMZ17648 (Pylopass™/Lonza) specifically co-aggregates H. pylori
[...] Read more.
Prevalence of infections by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen involved in a number of gastrointestinal diseases, remains high in developing countries. Management of infections by eradication is not always an option. Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSMZ17648 (Pylopass™/Lonza) specifically co-aggregates H. pylori in vitro and was shown to reduce 13C urea breath test in vivo. In this pilot study, we tried to replicate previous findings in an independent sample and to evaluate effects of spray-drying vs. freeze-drying of cultures. A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study was done in 22 H. pylori positive, asymptomatic adults. H. pylori levels were determined by 13C-urea-breath method after 14 days of supplementation, as well as after 6, 12, and 24 weeks follow-up. In the test group, but not in the placebo group, a significant reduction of H. pylori was observed. For the first time, spray-dried cells of L. reuteri DSMZ17648 have been used in a human study and results are in line with the first study results, supplementing with freeze-dried material. This is of special interest as spray-drying results in dead cell material, meaning that the effect of L. reuteri must be independent of its probiotic activity. These results confirm the potential of Pylopass™ as a novel way to reduce the load of H. pylori. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Antioxidants and B-Group Vitamins on Risk of Infections in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 711-724; doi:10.3390/nu5030711
Received: 6 December 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have revealed that diabetic patients have a decline in immunity and an increased risk of infections, and this may be associated with poor micronutrient status. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of dietary supplements on risk of
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have revealed that diabetic patients have a decline in immunity and an increased risk of infections, and this may be associated with poor micronutrient status. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of dietary supplements on risk of infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive an oral dose of daily B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins (n = 50) or an identical placebo (n = 50) daily for 90 days. Patients had baseline, three and 12 month assessment for nutritional status, fruits and vegetables intake, physical activity and self-reported infections. Supplementation with antioxidants and B-group vitamins significantly increased the plasma concentration of vitamin E and folate and reduced homocysteine in the intervention group (p-values were 0.006, 0.001 and 0.657, respectively). The number of infections reported by the treatment group after three months of supplements was less than that reported by the placebo group, 9 (27%) vs. 15 (36%) (p = 0.623). Corresponding numbers of infections at 12 months were 25 (67.5%) and 27 (56.3%), respectively (p = 0.488). Up to 90% of the diabetic patients were either overweight or obese with a sedentary life style, and their body weight increased further during three months of follow up. The study showed that multivitamin supplements improved vitamin blood concentrations; however, this did not reduce the number of infections in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3757-3778; doi:10.3390/nu5093757
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various immune cells and signaling networks that
[...] Read more.
Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various immune cells and signaling networks that link the immune and metabolic systems have contributed to our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity-associated inflammation. Other recent studies have suggested that pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system recognize various kinds of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and have a crucial role in initiating or promoting obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Importantly, these mediators act on insulin target cells or on insulin-producing cells impairing insulin sensitivity and its secretion. Here, we discuss how various pattern recognition receptors in the immune system underlie the etiology of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family protein Radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation protein-1 (MD-1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessReview Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2384-2404; doi:10.3390/nu5072384
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing
[...] Read more.
Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)

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