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Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults
Department of Nutrition & Graduate Group in Nutritional Biology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Jean Mayer USDA-ARS, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Obesity & Metabolism Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Western Human Nutrition Research Center West Health Science Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013; in revised form: 12 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Abstract: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.
Keywords: vitamin D; 25(OH)D; obesity; adipose tissue; weight loss
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Piccolo, B.D.; Dolnikowski, G.; Seyoum, E.; Thomas, A.P.; Gertz, E.R.; Souza, E.C.; Woodhouse, L.R.; Newman, J.W.; Keim, N.L.; Adams, S.H.; Van Loan, M.D. Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3352-3366.
Piccolo BD, Dolnikowski G, Seyoum E, Thomas AP, Gertz ER, Souza EC, Woodhouse LR, Newman JW, Keim NL, Adams SH, Van Loan MD. Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3352-3366.
Piccolo, Brian D.; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Thomas, Anthony P.; Gertz, Erik R.; Souza, Elaine C.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Newman, John W.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Van Loan, Marta D. 2013. "Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3352-3366.