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A Randomized Steady-State Bioavailability Study of Synthetic versus Natural (Kiwifruit-Derived) Vitamin C
Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology & Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, PO Box 4345, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Otago, Christchurch, PO Box 4345, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2013; in revised form: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Abstract: Whether vitamin C from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. We have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin C in a genetically vitamin C-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. To determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin C from kiwifruit with that of a vitamin C tablet of equivalent dosage. Thirty-six young non-smoking adult males were randomized to receive either half a gold kiwifruit (Actinidia Chinensis var. Hort 16A) per day or a comparable vitamin C dose (50 mg) in a chewable tablet for six weeks. Ascorbate was monitored weekly in fasting venous blood and in urine, semen, leukocytes, and skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) pre- and post-intervention. Dietary intake of vitamin C was monitored using seven day food and beverage records. Participant ascorbate levels increased in plasma (P < 0.001), urine (P < 0.05), mononuclear cells (P < 0.01), neutrophils (P < 0.01) and muscle tissue (P < 0.001) post intervention. There were no significant differences in vitamin C bioavailability between the two intervention groups in any of the fluid, cell or tissue samples tested. Overall, our study showed comparable bioavailability of synthetic and kiwifruit-derived vitamin C.
Keywords: ascorbate; ascorbic acid; human; plasma; urine; semen; leukocytes; skeletal muscle
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MDPI and ACS Style
Carr, A.C.; Bozonet, S.M.; Pullar, J.M.; Simcock, J.W.; Vissers, M.C.M. A Randomized Steady-State Bioavailability Study of Synthetic versus Natural (Kiwifruit-Derived) Vitamin C. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3684-3695.
Carr AC, Bozonet SM, Pullar JM, Simcock JW, Vissers MCM. A Randomized Steady-State Bioavailability Study of Synthetic versus Natural (Kiwifruit-Derived) Vitamin C. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3684-3695.
Carr, Anitra C.; Bozonet, Stephanie M.; Pullar, Juliet M.; Simcock, Jeremy W.; Vissers, Margreet C.M. 2013. "A Randomized Steady-State Bioavailability Study of Synthetic versus Natural (Kiwifruit-Derived) Vitamin C." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3684-3695.