Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3605-3616; doi:10.3390/nu5093605
Review

Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity

1 Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia 2 Specialized Diabetes and Endocrine Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 59046, Saudi Arabia 3 Faculty of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh 22490, Saudi Arabia 4 Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2013; in revised form: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
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Abstract: The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized.
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D toxicity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alshahrani, F.; Aljohani, N. Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3605-3616.

AMA Style

Alshahrani F, Aljohani N. Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3605-3616.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alshahrani, Fahad; Aljohani, Naji. 2013. "Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3605-3616.

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