Next Article in Journal
Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention
Previous Article in Journal
Acute Effects of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations with and without GuaranĂ¡ on Mood, Cognitive Performance and Functional Brain Activation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3605-3616; doi:10.3390/nu5093605

Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity

1 Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia 2 Specialized Diabetes and Endocrine Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 59046, Saudi Arabia 3 Faculty of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh 22490, Saudi Arabia 4 Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [180 KB, uploaded 13 September 2013]


The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized.
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D toxicity vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Alshahrani, F.; Aljohani, N. Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3605-3616.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert