Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3757-3778; doi:10.3390/nu5093757
Review

Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

1email, 1,* email and 1,2,* email
Received: 6 August 2013; in revised form: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various immune cells and signaling networks that link the immune and metabolic systems have contributed to our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity-associated inflammation. Other recent studies have suggested that pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system recognize various kinds of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and have a crucial role in initiating or promoting obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Importantly, these mediators act on insulin target cells or on insulin-producing cells impairing insulin sensitivity and its secretion. Here, we discuss how various pattern recognition receptors in the immune system underlie the etiology of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family protein Radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation protein-1 (MD-1).
Keywords: adipose tissue inflammation; cytokine; inflammasome; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; obesity; pattern recognition receptor; TLR; type 2 diabetes mellitus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Takatsu, K. Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3757-3778.

AMA Style

Watanabe Y, Nagai Y, Takatsu K. Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3757-3778.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Watanabe, Yasuharu; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi. 2013. "Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3757-3778.

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