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Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3740-3756; doi:10.3390/nu5093740
Article

Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein

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Received: 12 June 2013; in revised form: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 1 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
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Abstract: High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic simulator consisting of a proximal vessel (PV) (pH 5.5) and a distal vessel (DV) (pH 6.8) inoculated with human faeces and media containing soy protein. Genotoxicity of the liquid phase and microbial population changes in the vessels were measured. Soy protein (3%) was fermented with 1% low amylose cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly increased in the PV and DV by inulin but significantly decreased by XOS in both vessels. Other bacteria examined were also significantly impacted by the carbohydrate treatments or by the vessel (i.e., pH). There was a significant overall inverse correlation between levels of damage induced by the ferments and levels of sulphate-reducing bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis, and acetate. In conclusion, dietary XOS can potentially modulate the genotoxicity of the colonic environment and specific bacterial groups and short chain fatty acids may mediate this.
Keywords: microbiota; DNA damage; comet assay; microbial fermentation; quantitative PCR microbiota; DNA damage; comet assay; microbial fermentation; quantitative PCR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Christophersen, C.T.; Petersen, A.; Licht, T.R.; Conlon, M.A. Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3740-3756.

AMA Style

Christophersen CT, Petersen A, Licht TR, Conlon MA. Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3740-3756.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Christophersen, Claus T.; Petersen, Anne; Licht, Tine R.; Conlon, Michael A. 2013. "Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3740-3756.



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