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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 7 (July 2013), Pages 2268-2835

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Disease Activity among Rheumatology Outpatients
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2268-2275; doi:10.3390/nu5072268
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The co-existence of high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among Canadians and high prevalence of systematic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) raise the question on relationship between the two situations. Objective: To determine vitamin D status in known cases of common SARDs and compare
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The co-existence of high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among Canadians and high prevalence of systematic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) raise the question on relationship between the two situations. Objective: To determine vitamin D status in known cases of common SARDs and compare to those with non-autoimmune diseases; further, to evaluate the impact of vitamin D on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases. Methods: In a retrospective case-control study design, we evaluated 116 patients in a community clinic classified in two groups, Control group: patients with non-rheumatic disease (n = 56), and Case group: those with rheumatic diseases (n = 60). We compared plasma vitamin D status (25(OH)D), indicators of disease activity and other potential confounders. Further, we determined factors associated with disease activity in RA cases. Results: The plasma 25(OH)D was significantly lower in Case group (64.8 ± 29.8) compared to Control group (86.8 ± 37.7). High number of SARDs outpatients 56%) had considerably low plasma 25(OH)D concentration. RA cases with low plasma 25(OH)D had over five times higher risk of disease activity (OR = 5.15 95% CI 1.16, 22.9; p = 0.031). Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D status in SARDs cases, along with considerably strong association with disease activity in RA cases, indicate the need for proper evaluation of vitamin D status in this clinical population. Moreover, appropriate training should be given to the patients to ensure the intake of the recommended amount of vitamin D per day through diet or supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2276-2288; doi:10.3390/nu5072276
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to
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Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Rats Fed on a High Fat Diet
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2372-2383; doi:10.3390/nu5072372
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect
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Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes’ activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Population Model of Folate-Mediated One-Carbon Metabolism
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2457-2474; doi:10.3390/nu5072457
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Previous mathematical models for hepatic and tissue one-carbon metabolism have been combined and extended to include a blood plasma compartment. We use this model to study how the concentrations of metabolites that can be measured in the plasma are related to
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Background: Previous mathematical models for hepatic and tissue one-carbon metabolism have been combined and extended to include a blood plasma compartment. We use this model to study how the concentrations of metabolites that can be measured in the plasma are related to their respective intracellular concentrations. Methods: The model consists of a set of ordinary differential equations, one for each metabolite in each compartment, and kinetic equations for metabolism and for transport between compartments. The model was validated by comparison to a variety of experimental data such as the methionine load test and variation in folate intake. We further extended this model by introducing random and systematic variation in enzyme activity. Outcomes and Conclusions: A database of 10,000 virtual individuals was generated, each with a quantitatively different one-carbon metabolism. Our population has distributions of folate and homocysteine in the plasma and tissues that are similar to those found in the NHANES data. The model reproduces many other sets of clinical data. We show that tissue and plasma folate is highly correlated, but liver and plasma folate much less so. Oxidative stress increases the plasma S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAM/SAH) ratio. We show that many relationships among variables are nonlinear and in many cases we provide explanations. Sampling of subpopulations produces dramatically different apparent associations among variables. The model can be used to simulate populations with polymorphisms in genes for folate metabolism and variations in dietary input. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Metformin Lowers Serum Cobalamin without Changing Other Markers of Cobalamin Status: A Study on Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2475-2482; doi:10.3390/nu5072475
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin is followed by a decline in plasma cobalamin, but it is unsettled whether this denotes an impaired cobalamin status. This study has explored changes in the markers of cobalamin status in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome treated
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Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin is followed by a decline in plasma cobalamin, but it is unsettled whether this denotes an impaired cobalamin status. This study has explored changes in the markers of cobalamin status in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome treated with metformin (1.5–2.5 g per day) (n = 29) or placebo (n = 23) for six months. Serum samples were collected before and after two, four, and six months of treatment. We found serum cobalamin to decline and reach significant lower levels after six months of treatment (p = 0.003). Despite the decline in serum cobalamin, we observed no reductions in the physiological active part of cobalamin bound to transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin), or increase in the metabolic marker of cobalamin status, methylmalonic acid. Instead, the non-functional part of circulating cobalamin bound to haptocorrin declined (p = 0.0009). Our results have two implications: The data questions whether metformin treatment induces an impaired cobalamin status in PCOS patients, and further suggests that serum cobalamin is a futile marker for judging cobalamin status in metformin-treated patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle The Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC-1) 80A>G Polymorphism and Maternal Risk of Having a Child with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2551-2563; doi:10.3390/nu5072551
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common polymorphism (c.80A>G) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1, commonly known as RFC-1) has been associated with maternal risk of the birth of a child with Down Syndrome (DS), but results are controversial. We searched
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A common polymorphism (c.80A>G) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1, commonly known as RFC-1) has been associated with maternal risk of the birth of a child with Down Syndrome (DS), but results are controversial. We searched major online databases to identify available case-control studies, and performed a meta-analysis to summarize the data concerning this association. Nine independent case-control studies were identified for a total of 930 DS mothers (MDS) and 1240 control mothers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using both fixed and random effects models. An increase in the risk of having a birth with DS was observed for carriers of the homozygous GG genotype (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.57; p = 0.02, fixed effects model), even after removal from the meta-analysis of published data with deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02–1.55; p = 0.03, fixed effects model). Moreover, the pooled OR under the fixed effects model showed an increase in the maternal risk for the G allele (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.30; p = 0.03). Present results suggest that the maternal RFC-1 80A>G polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk of having a birth with DS, particularly among carriers of the GG genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Role for a Major Component of the Vitamin D Axis: Vitamin D Binding Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor Induces Human Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis through Stimulation of Macrophages
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2577-2589; doi:10.3390/nu5072577
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin
[...] Read more.
The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This al1ows 1,25(OH)(2)D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2629-2645; doi:10.3390/nu5072629
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were
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Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Phytanic Acid and the Combination of Various Fatty Acids on Proliferation and Cytokine Expression of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2667-2683; doi:10.3390/nu5072667
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 31 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and
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Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid) on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using alamar blue (AB) and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA). No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium and Bone Health: Possibility of Prevention of Osteoporosis in Women: The Polish Experience
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2684-2707; doi:10.3390/nu5072684
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to analyze the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium by women in the context of bone mineral density and to assess opportunities to prevent osteoporosis in a dietary manner. The study was carried out with 712
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The objective of the study was to analyze the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium by women in the context of bone mineral density and to assess opportunities to prevent osteoporosis in a dietary manner. The study was carried out with 712 Polish women. In 170 women aged 32 to 59 bone mineral density (BMD) was measured. The data on the consumption of dairy products and dietary calcium and some other osteoporosis risk factors was collected from 712 women. The average calcium intake from a diet was 507 mg/day. Only 2% of the women met Polish calcium intake recommendations. During adulthood, dairy product consumption or dietary calcium intake did not differ significantly between women with low BMD (below −1 SD) and women with regular BMD (≥−1 SD) (47.4 vs. 44.3 servings/week and 459 vs. 510 mg/day, respectively, p > 0.05). The odds ratios adjusted for age, menstruation and BMI in women with upper BMD tercile in comparison to the reference group (bottom tercile) was 2.73 (95% CI: 1.14, 6.55; p < 0.05) for the daily consumption of dairy products during the pre-school period and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.01, 5.70; p < 0.05) for the daily consumption of dairy products during the school period. Two clusters of women were established. In the S1 cluster, low BMD (below −1 SD) was associated with older age (≥50 years), lack of menstrual cycle. In the S2 cluster, regular BMD (≥−1 SD) was related to younger aged women (<50 years), presence of menstrual cycle, consumption of higher level of dairy products (≥28 servings/week) during adulthood and daily intake of dairy products during childhood and adolescence. The results indicate that good bone health to the large extent depended upon the combined impact of dietary factors and some non-modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis such as age and the presence of menstruation. Consumption of dairy products in childhood and adolescence may improve bone mineral density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in adult women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Influences on Age-Related Frailty)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Isoflavones from Puerariae Radix on Lipid and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2734-2746; doi:10.3390/nu5072734
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 16 June 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of the earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in oriental medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of total isoflavones from P. lobata (PTIF) in ovariectomized
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Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of the earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in oriental medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of total isoflavones from P. lobata (PTIF) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p.) and PTIF (30 and 100 mg/kg, once daily, p.o.) for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose PTIF significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the femur and inhibited the increase in body weight and lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Furthermore, PTIF exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated with reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that PTIF may be useful for controlling lipid and bone metabolism, at least in OVX rats. Further research is necessary to determine whether PTIF will have the same effects in humans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2747-2776; doi:10.3390/nu5072747
Received: 21 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation.
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The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the absolute difference between FFQ-regressive and FR-crude equaled 0.0 g/day and 95% CI were much better (e.g., for total protein 95% CI: −32.7, 32.7 g/day, for fat 95% CI: −49.6, 49.6 g/day). In conclusion, differences in nutritional value of diets resulted from overestimating energy intake by the FFQ in comparison to the three-day unweighted food records. Adjustment of energy and nutrient intake applied for the FFQ using various methods, particularly regression equations, significantly improved the agreement between results obtained by both methods and dietary assessment. To obtain the most accurate results in future studies using this FFQ, energy and nutrient intake should be adjusted by the regression equations presented in this paper. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2289-2313; doi:10.3390/nu5072289
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (1323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different
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Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Modulation of Immune Function by Polyphenols: Possible Contribution of Epigenetic Factors
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2314-2332; doi:10.3390/nu5072314
Received: 4 April 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 26 May 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several biological activities have been described for polyphenolic compounds, including a modulator effect on the immune system. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated to processes as differentiation and activation of immune cells. Among the mechanisms associated
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Several biological activities have been described for polyphenolic compounds, including a modulator effect on the immune system. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated to processes as differentiation and activation of immune cells. Among the mechanisms associated to immune regulation are epigenetic modifications as DNA methylation of regulatory sequences, histone modifications and posttranscriptional repression by microRNAs that influences the gene expression of key players involved in the immune response. Considering that polyphenols are able to regulate the immune function and has been also demonstrated an effect on epigenetic mechanisms, it is possible to hypothesize that there exists a mediator role of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation of the immune response by polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2333-2351; doi:10.3390/nu5072333
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Calcidiol Deficiency in End-Stage Organ Failure and after Solid Organ Transplantation: Status quo
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2352-2371; doi:10.3390/nu5072352
Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant
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Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2384-2404; doi:10.3390/nu5072384
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing
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Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessReview Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2405-2456; doi:10.3390/nu5072405
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2483-2501; doi:10.3390/nu5072483
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin
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Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Immune Function
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2502-2521; doi:10.3390/nu5072502
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 98 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes
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Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2522-2529; doi:10.3390/nu5072522
Received: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal
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Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
Open AccessReview The Use of Probiotic Strains in Caries Prevention: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2530-2550; doi:10.3390/nu5072530
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main
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This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the “Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials” (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value of each journal was recorded. Sixty-six papers were identified, and 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only three studies had caries lesion development as outcome, all the others reported caries risk factors as interim evaluation. Using the CONSORT Score, the papers were coded as 4 excellent, 9 good and 10 poor. The mean IF value recorded was 1.438. Probiotics may play a role as antagonistic agent on mutans streptococci (MS), acidogenic/aciduric bacteria that contributes to the caries process. In two-thirds of the selected papers, probiotics have demonstrated the capacity to reduce MS counts in saliva and/or plaque in short-term. The effect of probiotics on the development of caries lesion seems encouraging, but to date, RCTs on this topic are insufficient to provide scientific clinical evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Oral Medicine)
Open AccessReview Chemopreventive Potential of Flavonoids in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Human Studies
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2564-2576; doi:10.3390/nu5072564
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evidence available from nutritional epidemiology has indicated an inverse association between regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of developing certain types of cancer. In turn, preclinical studies have attributed the health-promoting effects of plant foods to some groups of phytochemicals,
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Evidence available from nutritional epidemiology has indicated an inverse association between regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of developing certain types of cancer. In turn, preclinical studies have attributed the health-promoting effects of plant foods to some groups of phytochemicals, by virtue of their many biological activities. In this survey, we briefly examine the chemopreventive potential of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods in human oral carcinogenesis. Despite the paucity of data from clinical trials and epidemiological studies, in comparison to in vitro/in vivo investigations, a high level of evidence has been reported for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and anthocyanins. These flavonoids, abundant in green tea and black raspberries, respectively, represent promising chemopreventive agents in human oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2590-2610; doi:10.3390/nu5072590
Received: 9 June 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal
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Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Influence of microRNA on the Maintenance of Human Iron Metabolism
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2611-2628; doi:10.3390/nu5072611
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is an essential nutrient critical for many cellular functions including DNA synthesis, ATP generation, and cellular proliferation. Though essential, excessive iron may contribute to the generation of free radicals capable of damaging cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. As such, the maintenance
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Iron is an essential nutrient critical for many cellular functions including DNA synthesis, ATP generation, and cellular proliferation. Though essential, excessive iron may contribute to the generation of free radicals capable of damaging cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. As such, the maintenance and control of cellular iron homeostasis is critical to prevent either iron deficiency or iron toxicity conditions. The maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis is largely coordinated by a family of cytosolic RNA binding proteins known as Iron Regulatory Proteins (IRP) that function to post-transcriptionally control the translation and/or stability of mRNA encoding proteins required for iron uptake, storage, transport, and utilization. More recently, a class of small non-coding RNA known as microRNA (miRNA) has also been implicated in the control of iron metabolism. To date, miRNA have been demonstrated to post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of genes associated with iron acquisition (transferrin receptor and divalent metal transporter), iron export (ferroportin), iron storage (ferritin), iron utilization (ISCU), and coordination of systemic iron homeostasis (HFE and hemojevelin). Given the diversity of miRNA and number of potential mRNA targets, characterizing factors that contribute to alterations in miRNA expression, biogenesis, and processing will enhance our understanding of mechanisms by which cells respond to changes in iron demand and/or iron availability to control cellular iron homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2646-2666; doi:10.3390/nu5072646
Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both
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The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both retinol and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform retinol into the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, regenerating visual pigments. Retina specific proteins carry out the majority of the visual cycle, and any significant interruption in this sequence of reactions is capable of causing varying degrees of blindness. Among these important proteins are Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (RPE65) known to be responsible for esterification of retinol to all-trans-retinyl esters and isomerization of these esters to 11-cis-retinal, respectively. Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Herein, we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human patients. We also review novel therapeutic strategies employing artificial visual chromophore 9-cis-retinoids which have been employed in clinical trials involving LCA patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
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Open AccessReview Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2708-2733; doi:10.3390/nu5072708
Received: 1 May 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in
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Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on pathophysiology, guidelines for cut-offs, and culturally-specific lifestyle management of obesity, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome are needed for South Asians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)
Open AccessReview The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2777-2810; doi:10.3390/nu5072777
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior.
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Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Docosahexaenoic Acid and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Peculiarities of One-Carbon Metabolism in the Strict Carnivorous Cat and the Role in Feline Hepatic Lipidosis
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2811-2835; doi:10.3390/nu5072811
Received: 10 April 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate) produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver
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Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate) produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism. This has led to specific and unique nutritional requirements. Adult cats require more dietary protein than omnivorous species, maintain a consistently high rate of protein oxidation and gluconeogenesis and are unable to adapt to reduced protein intake. Furthermore, cats have a higher requirement for essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Hastened use coupled with an inability to conserve certain amino acids, including methionine, cysteine, taurine and arginine, necessitates a higher dietary intake for cats compared to most other species. Cats also seemingly require higher amounts of several B-vitamins compared to other species and are predisposed to depletion during prolonged inappetance. This carnivorous uniqueness makes cats more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)

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