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Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2013; in revised form: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Abstract: Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research.
Keywords: antioxidants; carotenoids; gene regulation; light collection; lipid peroxidation; lutein; photo-damage; photoprotection; programmed cell death; zeaxanthin
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Demmig-Adams, B.; Adams, R.B. Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2483-2501.
Demmig-Adams B, Adams RB. Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2483-2501.
Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, Robert B. 2013. "Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2483-2501.