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Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2483-2501; doi:10.3390/nu5072483
Review

Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions

*  and
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye)
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Abstract

Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research.
Keywords: antioxidants; carotenoids; gene regulation; light collection; lipid peroxidation; lutein; photo-damage; photoprotection; programmed cell death; zeaxanthin antioxidants; carotenoids; gene regulation; light collection; lipid peroxidation; lutein; photo-damage; photoprotection; programmed cell death; zeaxanthin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Demmig-Adams, B.; Adams, R.B. Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2483-2501.

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