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The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women
Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, 999077, China
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37203-1738, USA
Division of Epidemiology, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, 999077, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2013; in revised form: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Abstract: Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage.
Keywords: vitamin D; blood pressure; endothelial function; renal function
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MDPI and ACS Style
Liu, Z.-M.; Woo, J.; Wu, S.-H.; Ho, S.C. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2590-2610.
Liu Z-M, Woo J, Wu S-H, Ho SC. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2590-2610.
Liu, Zhao-Min; Woo, Jean; Wu, Sheng-Hui; Ho, Suzanne C. 2013. "The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2590-2610.