Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2502-2521; doi:10.3390/nu5072502
Review

Vitamin D and Immune Function

Received: 4 June 2013; in revised form: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmunity; immune cells; adaptive immunity; innate immunity; cholecalciferol; calcitriol; 25(OH)D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prietl, B.; Treiber, G.; Pieber, T.R.; Amrein, K. Vitamin D and Immune Function. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2502-2521.

AMA Style

Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Vitamin D and Immune Function. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2502-2521.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Pieber, Thomas R.; Amrein, Karin. 2013. "Vitamin D and Immune Function." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2502-2521.

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