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Vitamin D and Immune Function
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, A 8036 Graz, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2013; in revised form: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Abstract: Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmunity; immune cells; adaptive immunity; innate immunity; cholecalciferol; calcitriol; 25(OH)D
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MDPI and ACS Style
Prietl, B.; Treiber, G.; Pieber, T.R.; Amrein, K. Vitamin D and Immune Function. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2502-2521.
Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Vitamin D and Immune Function. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2502-2521.
Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Pieber, Thomas R.; Amrein, Karin. 2013. "Vitamin D and Immune Function." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2502-2521.