Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2777-2810; doi:10.3390/nu5072777
Review

The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

Received: 2 May 2013; in revised form: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Docosahexaenoic Acid and Human Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; children; learning; behavior; school performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuratko, C.N.; Barrett, E.C.; Nelson, E.B.; Salem, N., Jr. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2777-2810.

AMA Style

Kuratko CN, Barrett EC, Nelson EB, Salem N, Jr. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2777-2810.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuratko, Connye N.; Barrett, Erin C.; Nelson, Edward B.; Salem, Norman, Jr. 2013. "The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2777-2810.

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