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Special Issue "Nutrients and Immune Function"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alma Nauta

Immunology Team Leader, Danone Research - Centre for Specialised Nutrition, 11 Biopolis Way, Helios 09-01/02, Singapore 138667, Singapore
E-Mail
Fax: +65 93834244
Guest Editor
Prof. Johan Garssen

Director Platform Immunology, Danone Research - Centre for Specialized Nutrition, Bosrandweg 20, P.O. Box 7005, 6700 CA Wageningen, The Netherlands
E-Mail
Fax: +31 317 466500

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charges (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs) for well prepared manuscripts submitted before 30 June 2012. The APC for manuscripts submitted from 1 July 2012 onwards are 1000 CHF per accepted paper. In addition, a fee of 250 CHF may apply if English editing or extensive revisions must be undertaken by the Editorial Office.

Keywords

  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • synbiotics
  • long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs)
  • development of the immune system
  • Gut microbiota
  • infections
  • allergy
  • inflammation
  • immune defense/system

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4079-4092; doi:10.3390/nu5104079
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children. In a
[...] Read more.
Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind randomized trial, HIV-infected South African children aged 4–24 months (n = 201) were assigned to receive multi-micronutrient supplements or placebo daily for six months. The children were assessed for respiratory symptoms or diarrhea bi-weekly; weights and heights were measured monthly. In total, 121 children completed the six month follow up study period (60%). A total of 43 children died; 27 of them had received supplements. This difference in mortality was not statistically significant (p = 0.12). Weight-for-height Z-scores improved significantly (p < 0.05) among children given supplements compared with those given placebo (0.40 (0.09–0.71)) versus −0.04 (−0.39–0.31) (mean (95% CI)). Height-for-age Z-scores did not improve in both treatment groups. The number of monthly episodes of diarrhea in the placebo group (0.36 (0.26–0.46)) was higher (p = 0.09) than in the supplement group (0.25 (0.17–0.33)) and the number of monthly episodes of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among children on placebos (1.01 (0.83–1.79)) than those on supplements (0.66 (0.52–0.80)). Multi-micronutrient supplements significantly improved wasting and reduced the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Long-Term Oral Administration of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Immune Functions of Young Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1949-1961; doi:10.3390/nu5061949
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the
[...] Read more.
Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessArticle Perioperative Immunonutrition in Well-Nourished Patients Undergoing Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer: Evaluation of Inflammatory and Immunologic Outcomes
Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1186-1199; doi:10.3390/nu5041186
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limited work is available on the benefits of nutritional support enriched with arginine and n-3 fatty acids in surgical patients with head and neck cancer, particularly if well-nourished. We conducted a pilot study in these patients to examine effects on inflammatory markers
[...] Read more.
Limited work is available on the benefits of nutritional support enriched with arginine and n-3 fatty acids in surgical patients with head and neck cancer, particularly if well-nourished. We conducted a pilot study in these patients to examine effects on inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Patients scheduled for radical resection of the oral cavity were randomised to 5 day preoperative and 5 day postoperative Impact® (IMN, n = 4), or no preoperative supplementary nutrition and Isosource® postoperatively (STD, n = 4). Plasma fatty acids, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were measured at baseline, day of surgery and on postoperative days (POD) 2, 4 and 10. Postoperative complications were recorded. The (eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid) to arachidonic acid ratio was significantly higher in IMN patients on POD 2, 4 and 10 (P < 0.01). While not statistically significant, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were higher in the STD group on POD2 while IL-10 was lower. Median length of stay was 10 (range 10–43) days in the IMN group and 21.5 (7–24) days in the STD group. Five complications were seen in the STD group and two in the IMN group. The results support the need for a larger trial focusing on clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Effects of Liriope Platyphylla Water Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Mouse Macrophage
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1887-1897; doi:10.3390/nu4121887
Received: 25 September 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 19 November 2012 / Published: 30 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tuber of Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang (Liliaceae), also known as Liriopis tuber, is famous in Oriental medicine owing to its tonic, antitussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic properties. In the present study, the effects of Liriopis tuber water extract (LP) on proinflammatory mediators
[...] Read more.
The tuber of Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang (Liliaceae), also known as Liriopis tuber, is famous in Oriental medicine owing to its tonic, antitussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic properties. In the present study, the effects of Liriopis tuber water extract (LP) on proinflammatory mediators secreted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cultured RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were investigated. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and intracellular calcium release were measured after 24 h incubation. Various cytokines and nuclear transcription factors (NF-κB and CREB) of LPS-induced RAW 264.7 were measured by a multiplex bead array assay based on xMAP technology. LP (up to 200 μg/mL) significantly decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, interferon-inducible protein-10, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, platelet derived growth factor, PGE2, intracellular calcium, NF-κB and CREB in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (p < 0.05). The results suggest that LP has immunomodulatory activity to reduce excessive immune reactions during the activation of macrophages by LPS. Further studies are needed to verify the precise mechanism regulating immunomodulatory activities of LP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Immune Function
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2502-2521; doi:10.3390/nu5072502
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 98 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Modulation of Immune Function by Polyphenols: Possible Contribution of Epigenetic Factors
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2314-2332; doi:10.3390/nu5072314
Received: 4 April 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 26 May 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several biological activities have been described for polyphenolic compounds, including a modulator effect on the immune system. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated to processes as differentiation and activation of immune cells. Among the mechanisms associated
[...] Read more.
Several biological activities have been described for polyphenolic compounds, including a modulator effect on the immune system. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated to processes as differentiation and activation of immune cells. Among the mechanisms associated to immune regulation are epigenetic modifications as DNA methylation of regulatory sequences, histone modifications and posttranscriptional repression by microRNAs that influences the gene expression of key players involved in the immune response. Considering that polyphenols are able to regulate the immune function and has been also demonstrated an effect on epigenetic mechanisms, it is possible to hypothesize that there exists a mediator role of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation of the immune response by polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview The Role of Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes Signaling in the Immune Responses
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2231-2257; doi:10.3390/nu5062231
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase which is a member of the PI3K related kinase (PIKK) family. mTOR emerged as a central node in cellular metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation, as well as cancer metabolism. mTOR senses
[...] Read more.
The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase which is a member of the PI3K related kinase (PIKK) family. mTOR emerged as a central node in cellular metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation, as well as cancer metabolism. mTOR senses the nutrients, energy, insulin, growth factors, and environmental cues and transmits signals to downstream targets to effectuate the cellular and metabolic response. Recently, mTOR was also implicated in the regulation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. This paper will summarize the current knowledge of mTOR, as related to the immune microenvironment and immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Heated Allergens and Induction of Tolerance in Food Allergic Children
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2028-2046; doi:10.3390/nu5062028
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food allergies are one of the first manifestations of allergic disease and have been shown to significantly impact on general health perception, parental emotional distress and family activities. It is estimated that in the Western world, almost one in ten children have an
[...] Read more.
Food allergies are one of the first manifestations of allergic disease and have been shown to significantly impact on general health perception, parental emotional distress and family activities. It is estimated that in the Western world, almost one in ten children have an IgE-mediated allergy. Cow’s milk and egg allergy are common childhood allergies. Until recently, children with food allergy were advised to avoid all dietary exposure to the allergen to which they were sensitive, in the thought that consumption would exacerbate their allergy. However, recent publications indicate that up to 70% of children with egg allergy can tolerate egg baked in a cake or muffin without apparent reaction. Likewise, up to 75% of children can tolerate baked goods containing cow’s milk, and these children demonstrate IgE and IgG4 profiles indicative of tolerance development. This article will review the current literature regarding the use of heated food allergens as immunotherapy for children with cow’s milk and egg allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Probiotics, Prebiotics and Immunomodulation of Gut Mucosal Defences: Homeostasis and Immunopathology
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1869-1912; doi:10.3390/nu5061869
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting
[...] Read more.
Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting the immune-modulatory ability of probiotic bacteria, it is therefore reasonable to suggest that this is potentiated via a combination of prebiotics and probiotics as a symbiotic mix. The need for probiotic formulations has been appreciated for the health benefits in “topping up your good bacteria” or indeed in an attempt to normalise the dysbiotic microbiota associated with immunopathology. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics and prebiotics on the cells, molecules and immune responses in the gut mucosae, from epithelial barrier to priming of adaptive responses by antigen presenting cells: immune fate decision—tolerance or activation? Modulation of normal homeostatic mechanisms, coupled with findings from probiotic and prebiotic delivery in pathological studies, will highlight the role for these xenobiotics in dysbiosis associated with immunopathology in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1672-1705; doi:10.3390/nu5051672
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty
[...] Read more.
Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet–gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits
Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1417-1435; doi:10.3390/nu5041417
Received: 28 January 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 182 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked
[...] Read more.
The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)

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