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Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Shimogamo, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kajii-cho, Kamigyo, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2013; in revised form: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
Abstract: Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; diet; dietary reference intakes; dietary habits; Japanese
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Kobayashi, Y.; Hattori, M.; Wada, S.; Iwase, H.; Kadono, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Kuwahata, M.; Fukui, M.; Hasegawa, G.; Nakamura, N.; Kido, Y. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2276-2288.
Kobayashi Y, Hattori M, Wada S, Iwase H, Kadono M, Tatsumi H, Kuwahata M, Fukui M, Hasegawa G, Nakamura N, Kido Y. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2276-2288.
Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro. 2013. "Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2276-2288.