E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Nutrition and the Eye"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Frank Eperjesi (Website)

Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Fax: +44 121 333 4048
Interests: macular pigment optical density; dry eye; instrument evaluation; reading rehabilitation; low vision
Guest Editor
Dr. Hannah Bartlett (Website)

Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
Interests: ocular nutrition; low vision; macular pigment; ophthalmic instrumentation; ocular physiology; electrophysiology

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charges (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs) for well prepared manuscripts submitted before 30 June 2012. The APC for manuscripts submitted from 1 July 2012 onwards are 1000 CHF per accepted paper. In addition, a fee of 250 CHF may apply if English editing or extensive revisions must be undertaken by the Editorial Office.

Print Edition available!
A Print Edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Name Pice* Download or order
Nutrition and the Eye 40.00 CHF here
For contributing authors or bulk orders special prices may apply.
Prices include shipping.

Keywords

  • age-related macular degeneration
  • dry eye
  • glaucoma
  • cataract
  • ageing
  • anti-oxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • lutein
  • zeaxanthin
  • macular pigment
  • macular pigment optical density
  • heterochromatic flicker
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • autofluoresence
  • reflectance
  • omega-3 fatty acids
  • zinc
  • betacarotene
  • drusen
  • vitamin A
  • tear osmolarity
  • resveratrol
  • ccular blood flow

 

 

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Macular Pigment and Its Contribution to Vision
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1962-1969; doi:10.3390/nu5061962
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP’s pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and [...] Read more.
Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP’s pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter are important for optimal visual function. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of MP’s constituent carotenoids and the same blue light-filtering properties underlie the rationale for its putative protective role for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Supplementation with L, Z and MZ augments MP and enhances visual performance in diseased and non-diseased eyes, and may reduce risk of AMD development and/or progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 750-757; doi:10.3390/nu5030750
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m [...] Read more.
The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2) were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A). Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD) was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional) was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01) but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Retinal Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and a New Metric for Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ocular Nutrition
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1812-1827; doi:10.3390/nu4121812
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT) in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) against visual [...] Read more.
Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT) in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) against visual function data from the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function (ZVF) randomized double masked placebo controlled clinical trial (FDA IND #78973). Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of medical center veterans with minimal visible AMD retinopathy (AREDS Report #18 simplified grading 1.4/4.0 bilateral retinopathy). Foveal and extra-foveal four quadrant SDOCT RT measurements were evaluated in n = 54 clinical and ZVF AMD patients. RT by age was determined and compared to the OptoVue SD OCT normative database. RT by quadrant in a subset of n = 29 ZVF patients was correlated with contrast sensitivity and parafoveal blue cone increment thresholds. Results: Foveal RT in AMD patients and non-AMD patients was preserved with age. Extrafoveal regions, however, showed significant slope differences between AMD patients and non-AMD patients, with the superior and nasal quadrants most vulnerable to retinal thinning (sup quad: −5.5 μm/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: −1.1 μm/decade, P < 0.02; nasal quad: −5.0 μm/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: −1.0 μm/decade, P < 0.04). Two measures of extrafoveal visual deterioration were correlated: A significant inverse correlation between % RT and contrast sensitivity (r = −0.33, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed Paired T) and an elevated extrafoveal increment blue cone threshold (r = +0.34, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed T). Additional SD OCT RT data for the non-AMD oldest age group (ages 82–91) is needed to fully substantiate the model. Conclusion: A simple new SD OCT clinical metric called “% extra-foveal RT” correlates well with functional visual loss in early AMD patients having minimal visible retinopathy. This metric can be used to follow the effect of repleting ocular nutrients, such as zinc, antioxidants, carotenoids, n-3 essential fats, resveratrol and vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2646-2666; doi:10.3390/nu5072646
Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of [...] Read more.
The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both retinol and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform retinol into the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, regenerating visual pigments. Retina specific proteins carry out the majority of the visual cycle, and any significant interruption in this sequence of reactions is capable of causing varying degrees of blindness. Among these important proteins are Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (RPE65) known to be responsible for esterification of retinol to all-trans-retinyl esters and isomerization of these esters to 11-cis-retinal, respectively. Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Herein, we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human patients. We also review novel therapeutic strategies employing artificial visual chromophore 9-cis-retinoids which have been employed in clinical trials involving LCA patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessReview Eye Nutrition in Context: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Future Directions
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2483-2501; doi:10.3390/nu5072483
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of [...] Read more.
Carotenoid-based visual cues and roles of carotenoids in human vision are reviewed, with an emphasis on protection by zeaxanthin and lutein against vision loss, and dietary sources of zeaxanthin and lutein are summarized. In addition, attention is given to synergistic interactions of zeaxanthin and lutein with other dietary factors affecting human vision (such as antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids) and the emerging mechanisms of these interactions. Emphasis is given to lipid oxidation products serving as messengers with functions in gene regulation. Lastly, the photo-physics of light collection and photoprotection in photosynthesis and vision are compared and their common principles identified as possible targets of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessReview Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2405-2456; doi:10.3390/nu5072405
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The Role of Lutein in Eye-Related Disease
Nutrients 2013, 5(5), 1823-1839; doi:10.3390/nu5051823
Received: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lens and retina of the human eye are exposed constantly to light and oxygen. In situ phototransduction and oxidative phosphorylation within photoreceptors produces a high level of phototoxic and oxidative related stress. Within the eye, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are [...] Read more.
The lens and retina of the human eye are exposed constantly to light and oxygen. In situ phototransduction and oxidative phosphorylation within photoreceptors produces a high level of phototoxic and oxidative related stress. Within the eye, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are present in high concentrations in contrast to other human tissues. We discuss the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in ameliorating light and oxygen damage, and preventing age-related cellular and tissue deterioration in the eye. Epidemiologic research shows an inverse association between levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in eye tissues and age related degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. We examine the role of these carotenoids as blockers of blue-light damage and quenchers of oxygen free radicals. This article provides a review of possible mechanisms of lutein action at a cellular and molecular level. Our review offers insight into current clinical trials and experimental animal studies involving lutein, and possible role of nutritional intervention in common ocular diseases that cause blindness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health
Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1169-1185; doi:10.3390/nu5041169
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange [...] Read more.
The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Retina, Retinol, Retinal and the Natural History of Vitamin A as a Light Sensor
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2069-2096; doi:10.3390/nu4122069
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin [...] Read more.
Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based photoreceptor proteins are called opsins and have been used for billions of years for sensing light for vision or the equivalent of vision. All vitamin A-based light sensors for vision in the animal kingdom are G-protein coupled receptors, while those in unicellular organisms are light-gated channels. This first major switch in evolution was followed by two other major changes: the switch from bistable to monostable pigments for vision and the expansion of vitamin A’s biological functions. Vitamin A’s new functions such as regulating cell growth and differentiation from embryogenesis to adult are associated with increased toxicity with its random diffusion. In contrast to bistable pigments which can be regenerated by light, monostable pigments depend on complex enzymatic cycles for regeneration after every photoisomerization event. Here we discuss vitamin A functions and transport in the context of the natural history of vitamin A-based light sensors and propose that the expanding functions of vitamin A and the choice of monostable pigments are the likely evolutionary driving forces for precise, efficient, and sustained vitamin A transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCase Report Observation of Human Retinal Remodeling in Octogenarians with a Resveratrol Based Nutritional Supplement
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1989-2005; doi:10.3390/nu5061989
Received: 8 March 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: Rare spontaneous remissions from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest the human retina has large regenerative capacity, even in advanced age. We present examples of robust improvement of retinal structure and function using an OTC oral resveratrol (RV) based nutritional supplement [...] Read more.
Purpose: Rare spontaneous remissions from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest the human retina has large regenerative capacity, even in advanced age. We present examples of robust improvement of retinal structure and function using an OTC oral resveratrol (RV) based nutritional supplement called Longevinex® or L/RV (circa 2004, Resveratrol Partners, LLC, Las Vegas, NV, USA). RV, a polyphenolic phytoalexin caloric-restriction mimic, induces hormesis at low doses with widespread beneficial effects on systemic health. RV alone inhibits neovascularization in the murine retina. Thus far, published evidence includes L/RV mitigation of experimentally induced murine cardiovascular reperfusion injury, amelioration of human atherosclerosis serum biomarkers in a human Japanese randomized placebo controlled trial, modulation of micro RNA 20b and 539 that control hypoxia-inducing-factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes in the murine heart (RV inhibited micro RNA20b 189-fold, L/RV 1366-fold). Little is known about the effects of L/RV on human ocular pathology. Methods: Absent FDA IRB approval, but with permission from our Chief of Staff and medical center IRB, L/RV is reserved for AMD patients, on a case-by-case compassionate care basis. Patients include those who progress on AREDS II type supplements, refuse intra-vitreal anti-VEGF injections or fail to respond to Lucentis®, Avastin® or Eylea®. Patients are clinically followed traditionally as well as with multi-spectral retinal imaging, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, cone glare recovery and macular visual fields. Three cases are presented. Results: Observed dramatic short-term anti-VEGF type effect including anatomic restoration of retinal structure with a suggestion of improvement in choroidal blood flow by near IR multispectral imaging. The visual function improvement mirrors the effect seen anatomically. The effect is bilateral with the added benefit of better RPE function. Effects have lasted for one year or longer when taken daily, at which point one patient required initiation of anti-VEGF agents. Unanticipated systemic benefits were observed. Conclusions: Preliminary observations support previous publications in animals and humans. Restoration of structure and visual function in octogenarians with daily oral consumption of L/RV is documented. Applications include failure on AREDS II supplements, refusing or failing conventional anti-VEGF therapy, adjunct therapy to improve RPE function, and compassionate use in medically underserved or economically depressed third-world countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessBrief Report Effects of Lutein and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Macular Pigment Optical Density in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 543-551; doi:10.3390/nu5020543
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 15 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the macular pigment ocular density (MPOD) in patients with early age macular degeneration (AMD) before and 1 year after nutritional supplementation with lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Forty-four patients with AMD were randomly divided into two groups that received placebo [...] Read more.
We studied the macular pigment ocular density (MPOD) in patients with early age macular degeneration (AMD) before and 1 year after nutritional supplementation with lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Forty-four patients with AMD were randomly divided into two groups that received placebo (n = 21) or a nutritional supplement (n = 23, 12 mg of lutein and 280 mg of DHA daily). Heterochromatic flicker photometry was used to determine the MPOD. At baseline, the MPOD in AMD patients with placebo was 0.286 ± 0.017 meanwhile in AMD patients with supplementation it was 0.291 ± 0.016. One year later, the mean MPOD had increased by 0.059 in the placebo group and by 0.162 in patients receiving lutein and DHA. This difference between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Lutein and DHA supplementation is effective in increasing the MPOD and may aid in prevention of age related macular degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Nutrients Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
nutrients@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Nutrients
Back to Top