Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2629-2645; doi:10.3390/nu5072629
Article

Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice

1 Department of Pathology/Section on Lipid Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA 2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA 3 Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA 4 Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2013; in revised form: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract: Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.
Keywords: fish oil; PUFA; polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids; omega-3 fatty acids; very low density lipoproteins; botanical oil; hepatic steatosis

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MDPI and ACS Style

Forrest, L.M.; Lough, C.M.; Chung, S.; Boudyguina, E.Y.; Gebre, A.K.; Smith, T.L.; Colvin, P.L.; Parks, J.S. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2629-2645.

AMA Style

Forrest LM, Lough CM, Chung S, Boudyguina EY, Gebre AK, Smith TL, Colvin PL, Parks JS. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice. Nutrients. 2013; 5(7):2629-2645.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Forrest, Lolita M.; Lough, Christopher M.; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S. 2013. "Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice." Nutrients 5, no. 7: 2629-2645.

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