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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 1 (January 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Cyclodextrins are able to encapsulate water-soluble phosphanes in their cavity even when these [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Pomegranate for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: An Update
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010177
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and those who survive cancer may experience lasting difficulties, including treatment side effects, as well as physical, cognitive, and psychosocial struggles. Naturally-occurring agents from dietary fruits and vegetables have received considerable
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and those who survive cancer may experience lasting difficulties, including treatment side effects, as well as physical, cognitive, and psychosocial struggles. Naturally-occurring agents from dietary fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention for the prevention and treatment of cancers. These natural agents are safe and cost efficient in contrast to expensive chemotherapeutic agents, which may induce significant side effects. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of diseases and ailments for centuries in ancient cultures. Pomegranate exhibits strong antioxidant activity and is a rich source of anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and hydrolysable tannins. Studies have shown that the pomegranate fruit as well as its juice, extract, and oil exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumorigenic properties by modulating multiple signaling pathways, which suggest its use as a promising chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies highlighting the role of pomegranate in prevention and treatment of skin, breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of a Phaseolus vulgaris Trypsin Inhibitor with Antiproliferative Activity on Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010187
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
A 17.5-kDa trypsin inhibitor was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “gold bean” with an isolation protocol including ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose), affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-sepharose (Sulfopropyl-sepharose), and gel filtration by FPLC (Fast protein liquid
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A 17.5-kDa trypsin inhibitor was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “gold bean” with an isolation protocol including ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose), affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-sepharose (Sulfopropyl-sepharose), and gel filtration by FPLC (Fast protein liquid chromatography) on Superdex 75. It dose-dependently inhibited trypsin with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM, and this activity was reduced in the presence of dithiothreitol in a dose- and time-dependent manner, signifying the importance of the disulfide linkage to the activity. It inhibited [methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and lymphoma MBL2 cells with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. The inhibitor had no effect on fungal growth and the activities of various viral enzymes when tested up to 100 μM. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Co-Immobilization of Enzymes and Magnetic Nanoparticles by Metal-Nucleotide Hydrogelnanofibers for Improving Stability and Recycling
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010179
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this paper we report a facile method for preparing co-immobilized enzyme and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using metal coordinated hydrogel nanofibers. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was selected as guest protein. For good aqueous dispersity, low price and other unique properties, citric acid-modified magnetic
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In this paper we report a facile method for preparing co-immobilized enzyme and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using metal coordinated hydrogel nanofibers. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was selected as guest protein. For good aqueous dispersity, low price and other unique properties, citric acid-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CA-Fe3O4 NPs) have been widely used for immobilizing enzymes. As a result, the relative activity of CA-Fe3O4@Zn/AMP nanofiber-immobilized CRL increased by 8-fold at pH 10.0 and nearly 1-fold in a 50 °C water bath after 30 min, compared to free CRL. Moreover, the immobilized CRL had excellent long-term storage stability (nearly 80% releative activity after storage for 13 days). This work indicated that metal-nucleotide nanofibers could efficiently co-immobilize enzymes and MNPs simultaneously, and improve the stability of biocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization 2016)
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Open AccessReview Research Advances and Detection Methodologies for Microbe-Derived Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Systemic Review
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010176
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are an attractive research subject owing to their potential applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Fungi and bacteria are major producers of AChEIs. Their active ingredients of fermentation products include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and steroids. A variety of in
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Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are an attractive research subject owing to their potential applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Fungi and bacteria are major producers of AChEIs. Their active ingredients of fermentation products include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and steroids. A variety of in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitor assays have been developed and used to measure the activity of acetylcholinesterases, including modified Ellman’s method, thin layer chromatography bioautography, and the combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/modified Ellman’s method. In this review, we provide an overview of the different detection methodologies, the microbe-derived AChEIs, and their producing strains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Highly Efficient Enzymatic Preparation of Daidzein in Deep Eutectic Solvents
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010186
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Daidzein, which is scarce in nature, has gained significant attention due to its superior biological activity and bioavailability compared with daidzin. So far, it has been widely used in the medicine and health care products industries. The enzymatic approach for the preparation of
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Daidzein, which is scarce in nature, has gained significant attention due to its superior biological activity and bioavailability compared with daidzin. So far, it has been widely used in the medicine and health care products industries. The enzymatic approach for the preparation of daidzein has prevailed, benefitted by its high efficiency and eco-friendly nature. Our present research aimed at providing a preparation method of daidzein by enzymatic hydrolysis of daidzin in a new “green” reaction medium-deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Herein, the DESs were screened via evaluating enzyme activity, enzyme stability and the substrate solubility, and the DES (ChCl/EG 2:1, 30 vol %) was believed to be the most appropriate co-solvent to improve the bioconversion efficiency. Based on the yield of daidzein, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model and optimize the reaction parameters. Under these optimum process conditions, the maximum yield of 97.53% was achieved and the purity of daidzein crude product reached more than 70%, which is more efficient than conversions in DESs-free buffer. Importantly, it has been shown that DESs medium could be reused for six batches of the process with a final conversion of above 50%. The results indicated that this procedure could be considered a mild, environmentally friendly, highly efficient approach to the economical production of daidzein, with a simple operation process and without any harmful reagents being involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Alkylglycerol Derivatives, a New Class of Skin Penetration Modulators
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010185
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
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Abstract
The absorption modulating activity of two alkylglycerol derivatives (batyl and chimyl alcohol) on skin barrier properties was evaluated. Biophysical tests such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, as well as in vitro skin permeation studies, were
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The absorption modulating activity of two alkylglycerol derivatives (batyl and chimyl alcohol) on skin barrier properties was evaluated. Biophysical tests such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, as well as in vitro skin permeation studies, were performed in order to determine the effect of these compounds as chemical absorption modulators. Four drugs were used as models: three NSAIDS (diclofenac, naproxen, and piroxicam) and glycyrrhizic acid. The results showed that treatment of the skin with alkylglycerols caused (i) a reduction on the amount of drug permeated; (ii) a reduction in TEWL; and (iii) changes in the ATR-FTIR peaks of stratum corneum lipids, indicative of a more ordered structure. All of these findings confirm that alkyl glycerols have an absorption retarding effect on the drugs tested. Such effects are expected to give rise to important applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors, in cases where it is desirable for the drug to remain in the superficial layers of the skin to achieve a local effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Delivery Systems: Current Landscape and Trends)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010184
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), vinyl acetate (VAc), n-butyl acrylate (BA), Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA). The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the
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Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), vinyl acetate (VAc), n-butyl acrylate (BA), Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA). The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV) accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phloretin Exerts Anti-Tuberculosis Activity and Suppresses Lung Inflammation
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010183
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increase in the prevalence of the drug-resistant Mycobacteria tuberculosis necessitates developing new types of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Here, we found that phloretin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, has anti-mycobacterial effects on H37Rv, multi-drug-, and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 182 and
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An increase in the prevalence of the drug-resistant Mycobacteria tuberculosis necessitates developing new types of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Here, we found that phloretin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, has anti-mycobacterial effects on H37Rv, multi-drug-, and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 182 and 364 μM, respectively. Since Mycobacteria cause lung inflammation that contributes to tuberculosis pathogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects of phloretin in interferon-γ-stimulated MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated dendritic cells were investigated. The release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was inhibited by phloretin. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, were suppressed. A mouse in vivo study of LPS-stimulated lung inflammation showed that phloretin effectively suppressed the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung tissue with low cytotoxicity. Phloretin was found to bind M. tuberculosis β-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III (mtKASIII) with high affinity (7.221 × 107 M−1); a binding model showed hydrogen bonding of A-ring 2′-hydroxy and B-ring 4-hydroxy groups of phloretin with Asn261 and Cys122 of mtKASIII, implying that mtKASIII can be a potential target protein. Therefore, phloretin can be a useful dietary natural product with anti-tuberculosis benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure-Activity Relationship of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride—In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010182
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the
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Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle A Method for LC-MS/MS Profiling of Coumarins in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) B. Zepernich and Timler Extracts and Essential Oils
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010174
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
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Abstract
The metabolites from the coumarin class, present in tissues of plants belonging mainly to the Rutaceae and Apiaceae families, included compounds with high chemical diversity such as simple coumarins and furocoumarins. These health-promoting components are recognized for their valuable biological activities in herbal
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The metabolites from the coumarin class, present in tissues of plants belonging mainly to the Rutaceae and Apiaceae families, included compounds with high chemical diversity such as simple coumarins and furocoumarins. These health-promoting components are recognized for their valuable biological activities in herbal preparations but also for their phototoxic effects. In this work, a targeted liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) was developed for the screening of 39 reference standards of coumarins and furocoumarins in essential oils and plant extracts. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on reversed phase column using water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase and detection was performed on a hybrid QqQ/linear ion trap spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source operating in positive ion mode. This analytical approach was applied to investigate the coumarin compositions of fruit essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from separated parts (fruit, leaf, stem, trunk, and root) of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. Ten coumarins and six furanocoumarins were reported in this species and data analyses were used to assess the suitability of these compounds to the metabolomics-based differentiation of plant organs. The quantification criteria of the metabolites in extract samples included linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and matrix effect were validated. As reported for other species of the Rutaceae family, the concentration of coumarins was drastically higher in Z. zanthoxyloides fruits than in other plant organs. Full article
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Open AccessReview Detection of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Technique
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010181
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last decade there has been growing interest in physical-chemical oxidation processes and the behavior of free radicals in living systems. Radicals are known as intermediate species in a variety of biochemical reactions. Numerous techniques, assays and biomarkers have been used to
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During the last decade there has been growing interest in physical-chemical oxidation processes and the behavior of free radicals in living systems. Radicals are known as intermediate species in a variety of biochemical reactions. Numerous techniques, assays and biomarkers have been used to measure reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), and to examine oxidative stress. However, many of these assays are not entirely satisfactory or are used inappropriately. The purpose of this chapter is to review current EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectroscopy methods for measuring ROS, RNS, and their secondary products, and to discuss the strengths and limitations of specific methodological approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Pharmacology of Modulators of Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle A New Human Cancer Cell Proliferation Inhibition Sesquiterpene, Dryofraterpene A, from Medicinal Plant Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010180
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely with the aging and growth of the world population. The purpose of the present work was to find new anticancer molecules from a natural source. We utilized chromatographic methods to isolate compounds from medicinal
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The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely with the aging and growth of the world population. The purpose of the present work was to find new anticancer molecules from a natural source. We utilized chromatographic methods to isolate compounds from medicinal plant Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott. The structure of the new compounds was determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, and EMI-MS). Their anti-proliferation effects against five human cancer cell lines including A549, MCF7, HepG2, HeLa, and PC-3 were evaluated by CCK-8 andlactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. A new sesquiterpene, (7S, 10S)-2,3-dihydroxy-calamenene-15-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1), and two known compounds (2 and 3) were isolated. The new sesquiterpene was named dryofraterpene A and significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation without any obvious necrosis below a 10 μM concentration. In conclusion, a novel anticancer sesquiterpene together with two known compounds was isolated, which might be a promising lead compound for the treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Nano-Structural Investigation on Cellulose Highly Dissolved in Ionic Liquid: A Small Angle X-ray Scattering Study
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010178
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated nano-structural changes of cellulose dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate—an ionic liquid (IL)—using a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique over the entire concentration range (0–100 mol %). Fibril structures of cellulose disappeared at 40 mol % of cellulose, which is a significantly
[...] Read more.
We investigated nano-structural changes of cellulose dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate—an ionic liquid (IL)—using a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique over the entire concentration range (0–100 mol %). Fibril structures of cellulose disappeared at 40 mol % of cellulose, which is a significantly higher concentration than the maximum concentration of dissolution (24–28 mol %) previously determined in this IL. This behavior is explained by the presence of the anion bridging, whereby an anion prefers to interact with multiple OH groups of different cellulose molecules at high concentrations, discovered in our recent work. Furthermore, we observed the emergence of two aggregated nano-structures in the concentration range of 30–80 mol %. The diameter of one structure was 12–20 nm, dependent on concentration, which is ascribed to cellulose chain entanglement. In contrast, the other with 4.1 nm diameter exhibited concentration independence and is reminiscent of a cellulose microfibril, reflecting the occurrence of nanofibrillation. These results contribute to an understanding of the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in ILs. Finally, we unexpectedly proposed a novel cellulose/IL composite: the cellulose/IL mixtures of 30–50 mol % that possess liquid crystallinity are sufficiently hard to be moldable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010175
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes
[...] Read more.
Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of 1H, 13C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM) comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hyperforin Exhibits Antigenotoxic Activity on Human and Bacterial Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010167
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Hyperforin (HF), a substance that accumulates in the leaves and flowers of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort), consists of a phloroglucinol skeleton with lipophilic isoprene chains. HF exhibits several medicinal properties and is mainly used as an antidepressant. So far, the antigenotoxicity
[...] Read more.
Hyperforin (HF), a substance that accumulates in the leaves and flowers of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort), consists of a phloroglucinol skeleton with lipophilic isoprene chains. HF exhibits several medicinal properties and is mainly used as an antidepressant. So far, the antigenotoxicity of HF has not been investigated at the level of primary genetic damage, gene mutations, and chromosome aberrations, simultaneously. The present work is designed to investigate the potential antigenotoxic effects of HF using three different experimental test systems. The antigenotoxic effect of HF leading to the decrease of primary/transient promutagenic genetic changes was detected by the alkaline comet assay on human lymphocytes. The HF antimutagenic effect leading to the reduction of gene mutations was assessed using the Ames test on the standard Salmonella typhimurium (TA97, TA98, and TA100) bacterial strains, and the anticlastogenic effect of HF leading to the reduction of chromosome aberrations was evaluated by the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test on the human tumor cell line HepG2 and the non-carcinogenic cell line VH10. Our findings provided evidence that HF showed antigenotoxic effects towards oxidative mutagen zeocin in the comet assay and diagnostic mutagen (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide) in the Ames test. Moreover, HF exhibited an anticlastogenic effect towards benzo(a)pyrene and cisplatin in the chromosome aberration test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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