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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 2 (February 2017)

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Cover Story The immense scope for variation in dendritic molecules and their versatile functionalization, with [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins—Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Fiorenzo Stirpe
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 316; doi:10.3390/molecules22020316
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract The family of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) groups all enzymes (EC.3.2.2.22) with a so-called RIP domain which comprises N-glycosidase activity and enables these proteins to catalytically inactivate ribosomes.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Special Issue on Ruthenium Complexes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 255; doi:10.3390/molecules22020255
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
The organic chemistry of ruthenium has been one of the most vigorously growing research areas over the past decades. Considerable effort has been extended towards the design and application of a broad series of ruthenium complexes, which culminated with the development by Ryoji
[...] Read more.
The organic chemistry of ruthenium has been one of the most vigorously growing research areas over the past decades. Considerable effort has been extended towards the design and application of a broad series of ruthenium complexes, which culminated with the development by Ryoji Noyori (2001 Nobel Prize for Chemistry) of chiral ruthenium catalysts for stereoselective hydrogenation reactions [1], and the discovery by Robert H. Grubbs (2005 Nobel Prize for Chemistry) of well-defined ruthenium–
benzylidene catalysts for olefin metathesis [2] [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
Open AccessEditorial Advances of Vibrational Spectroscopic Technologies in Life Sciences
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 278; doi:10.3390/molecules22020278
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Vibrational Spectroscopic Technologies in Life Sciences)
Open AccessEditorial Drug Design and Discovery: Principles and Applications
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 279; doi:10.3390/molecules22020279
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Design and Discovery: Principles and Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Anti-Breast Cancer Activity, and Molecular Docking Study of a New Group of Acetylenic Quinolinesulfonamide Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 300; doi:10.3390/molecules22020300
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a series of regioisomeric acetylenic sulfamoylquinolines are designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against three human breast cacer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal fibroblast (HFF-1) by 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1)
[...] Read more.
In this study, a series of regioisomeric acetylenic sulfamoylquinolines are designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against three human breast cacer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal fibroblast (HFF-1) by 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1) assay. The antiproliferative activity of the tested acetylenic quinolinesulfonamides is comparable to that of cisplatin. The bioassay results demonstrate that most of the tested compounds show potent antitumor activities, and that some compounds exhibit better effects than the positive control cisplatin against various cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 4-(3-propynylthio)-7-[N-methyl-N-(3-propynyl)sulfamoyl]quinoline shows significant antiprolierative activity against T47D cells with IC50 values of 0.07 µM. In addition, 2-(3-Propynylthio)-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-propynyl)sulfa-moyl]quinoline and 2-(3-propynylseleno)-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-propynyl)sulfamoyl]quinoline display highly effective atitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 cells, with IC50 values of 0.09 and 0.50 µM, respectively. Furthermore, most of the tested compounds show a weak cytotoxic effect against the normal HFF-1 cell line. Additionally, in order to suggest a mechanism of action for their activity, all compounds are docked into the binding site of two human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes. These data indicate that some of the title compounds display significant cytotoxic activity, possibly targeting the CYPs pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfonamides)
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Open AccessArticle Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 301; doi:10.3390/molecules22020301
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp) extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp) extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27–85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous) and gram-negative (Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Nitrilimine–Alkene Cycloaddition Regioselectivity Rationalized by Density Functional Theory Reactivity Indices
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 202; doi:10.3390/molecules22020202
Received: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
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Abstract
Conventional frontier molecular orbital theory is not able to satisfactorily explain the regioselectivity outcome of the nitrilimine–alkene cycloaddition. We considered that conceptual density functional theory (DFT) could be an effective theoretical framework to rationalize the regioselectivity of the title reaction. Several nitrilimine–alkene cycloadditions
[...] Read more.
Conventional frontier molecular orbital theory is not able to satisfactorily explain the regioselectivity outcome of the nitrilimine–alkene cycloaddition. We considered that conceptual density functional theory (DFT) could be an effective theoretical framework to rationalize the regioselectivity of the title reaction. Several nitrilimine–alkene cycloadditions were analyzed, for which we could find regioselectivity data in the literature. We computed DFT reactivity indices at the B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and employed the grand potential stabilization criterion to calculate the preferred regioisomer. Experimental and calculated regioselectivity agree in the vast majority of cases. It was concluded that predominance of a single regioisomer can be obtained by maximizing (i) the chemical potential difference between nitrilimine and alkene and (ii) the local softness difference between the reactive atomic sites within each reactant. Such maximization can be achieved by carefully selecting the substituents on both reactants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Catalytic Oxidation of 3-Arylthio- and 3-Cyclohexylthio-lapachone Derivatives to New Sulfonyl Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 302; doi:10.3390/molecules22020302
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
New sulfonyl-lapachones were efficiently obtained through the catalytic oxidation of arylthio- and cyclohexylthio-lapachone derivatives with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a Mn(III) porphyrin complex. The antibacterial activities of the non-oxidized and oxidized lapachone derivatives against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the
[...] Read more.
New sulfonyl-lapachones were efficiently obtained through the catalytic oxidation of arylthio- and cyclohexylthio-lapachone derivatives with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a Mn(III) porphyrin complex. The antibacterial activities of the non-oxidized and oxidized lapachone derivatives against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated after their incorporation into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micelles. The obtained results show that the PVP-formulations of the lapachones 4bg and of the sulfonyl-lapachones 7e and 7g reduced the growth of S. aureus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil Extraction, Chemical Analysis and Anti-Candida Activity of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Ball—New Approaches
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 203; doi:10.3390/molecules22020203
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A comprehensive study on essential oils extracted from different Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Ball samples from Tarquinia (Italy) is reported. In this study, the 24-h steam distillation procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of different harvesting and extraction times,
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive study on essential oils extracted from different Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Ball samples from Tarquinia (Italy) is reported. In this study, the 24-h steam distillation procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of different harvesting and extraction times, was applied. The Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed that C. nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Ball essential oils from Tarquinia belong to the pulegone-rich chemotype. The analysis of 44 samples revealed that along with pulegone, some other chemicals may participate in exerting the related antifungal activity. The results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with at least a 6-h steam distillation process. Even though it is not so dependent on the period of harvesting, it could be recommended not to harvest the plant in the fruiting stage, since no significant antifungal effect was shown. The maximum essential oil yield was obtained in August, with the highest pulegone percentage. To obtain the oil with a higher content of menthone, September and October should be considered as the optimal periods. Regarding the extraction duration, vegetative stage material gives the oil in the first 3 h, while material from the reproductive phase should be extracted at least at 6 or even 12 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle Application of the Triazolization Reaction to Afford Dihydroartemisinin Derivatives with Anti-HIV Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 303; doi:10.3390/molecules22020303
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Artemisinin and synthetic derivatives of dihydroartemisinin are known to possess various biological activities. Post-functionalization of dihydroartemisinin with triazole heterocycles has been proven to lead to enhanced therapeutic potential. By using our newly developed triazolization strategy, a library of unexplored fused and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole
[...] Read more.
Artemisinin and synthetic derivatives of dihydroartemisinin are known to possess various biological activities. Post-functionalization of dihydroartemisinin with triazole heterocycles has been proven to lead to enhanced therapeutic potential. By using our newly developed triazolization strategy, a library of unexplored fused and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydroartemisinin were synthesized in a single step. All these newly synthesized compounds were characterized and evaluated for their anti-HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) potential in MT-4 cells. Interestingly; three of the synthesized triazole derivatives of dihydroartemisinin showed activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 1.34 to 2.65 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artemisinin: Against Malaria, Cancer and Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Study of Tapirira guianensis Leaves Guided by Vasodilatory and Antioxidant Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 304; doi:10.3390/molecules22020304
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to perform a phytochemical study of the methanol leaves extract of T. guianensis (MET) guided by vasodilatory and antioxidant activities. The chemical profile of MET and the ethyl acetate fraction (EA fraction) was determined by HPLC-UV-MS and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to perform a phytochemical study of the methanol leaves extract of T. guianensis (MET) guided by vasodilatory and antioxidant activities. The chemical profile of MET and the ethyl acetate fraction (EA fraction) was determined by HPLC-UV-MS and EA fraction guided fractionation by reverse-phase chromatography. The vasorelaxant effects of MET, fractions, sub-fractions and constituents were assessed on rat aorta pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using a DPPH assay. The results show that MET-induced vasodilation was dependent on NO/cGMP; and that the PI3K/Akt pathway seems to be the main route involved in eNOS activation. The EA fraction showed greater vasodilatory and antioxidant potency and was submitted to further fractionation. This allowed the isolation and characterization of quercetin, quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside and 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose. Also, galloyl-HHDP-hexoside and myricetin deoxyhexoside were identified by HPLC-UV-MS. These compounds are being described for the first time for T. guianensis. 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose and quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside showed no vasodilatory activity. Quercetin and myricetin glycoside seems to contribute to the MET activity, since they have been reported as vasodilatory flavonoids. MET-induced vasodilation could contribute to the hypotensive effect of T. guianensis previously reported. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disparate Effects of Stilbenoid Polyphenols on Hypertrophic Cardiomyocytes In Vitro vs. in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Rat
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 204; doi:10.3390/molecules22020204
Received: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 1 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stilbenoids are bioactive polyphenols, and resveratrol (trans-3,5,40-trihydroxystilbene) is a representative stilbenoid that reportedly exerts cardioprotective actions. As resveratrol exhibits low oral bioavailability, we turned our attention to other stilbenoid compounds with a history of medicinal use and/or improved bioavailability. We determined the effects
[...] Read more.
Stilbenoids are bioactive polyphenols, and resveratrol (trans-3,5,40-trihydroxystilbene) is a representative stilbenoid that reportedly exerts cardioprotective actions. As resveratrol exhibits low oral bioavailability, we turned our attention to other stilbenoid compounds with a history of medicinal use and/or improved bioavailability. We determined the effects of gnetol (trans-3,5,20,60-tetrahydroxystilbene) and pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-40-hydroxystilbene) on cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro, gnetol and pterostilbene prevented endothelin-1-induced indicators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy including cell enlargement and protein synthesis. Gnetol and pterostilbene stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of AMPK, using compound C or shRNA knockdown,abolished these anti-hypertrophiceffects. In contrast,resveratrol, gnetol, nor pterostilbene reduced blood pressure or hypertrophy in the spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rat. In fact, AMPK levels were similar between Sprague-Dawley and SHHF rats whether treated by stilbenoids or not. These data suggest that the anti-hypertrophic actions of resveratrol (and other stilbenoids?) do not extend to the SHHF rat, which models heart failure superimposed on hypertension. Notably, SHHF rat hearts exhibited prolonged isovolumic relaxationtime(an indicator of diastolicdys function),and this was improved by stilbenoid treatment.In conclusion, stilbenoid-based treatment as a viable strategy to prevent pathological cardiac hypertrophy,a major risk factor for heart failure,may be context-dependent and requires furtherstudy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorptive Desulfurization of Model Gasoline by Using Different Zn Sources Exchanged NaY Zeolites
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 305; doi:10.3390/molecules22020305
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of Zn-modified NaY zeolites were prepared by the liquid-phase ion-exchange method with different Zn sources, including Zn(NO3)2, Zn(Ac)2 and ZnSO4. The samples were tested as adsorbents for removing an organic sulfur compound from a
[...] Read more.
A series of Zn-modified NaY zeolites were prepared by the liquid-phase ion-exchange method with different Zn sources, including Zn(NO3)2, Zn(Ac)2 and ZnSO4. The samples were tested as adsorbents for removing an organic sulfur compound from a model gasoline fuel containing 1000 ppmw sulfur. Zn(Ac)2-Y exhibited the best performance for the desulfurization of gasoline at ambient conditions. Combined with the adsorbents’ characterization results, the higher adsorption capacity of Zn(Ac)2-Y is associated with a higher ion-exchange degree. Further, the results demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % toluene or 1-hexene to the diluted thiophene (TP) solution in cyclohexane caused a large decrease in the removal of TP from the model gasoline fuel. This provides evidence about the competition through the π-complexation between TP and toluene for adsorption on the active sites. The acid-catalyzed alkylation by 1-hexene of TP and the generated complex mixture of bulky alkylthiophenes would adsorb on the surface active sites of the adsorbent and block the pores. The regenerated Zn(Ac)2-Y adsorbent afforded 84.42% and 66.10% of the initial adsorption capacity after the first two regeneration cycles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Larvicidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Echinops grijsii Roots against the Three Species of Mosquitoes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 205; doi:10.3390/molecules22020205
Received: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
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Abstract
The screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that the essential oil of Echinops grijsii Hance roots possessed significant larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and its constituents were determined by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) analysis.
[...] Read more.
The screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that the essential oil of Echinops grijsii Hance roots possessed significant larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and its constituents were determined by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) analysis. GC‐MS analyses revealed the presence of 31 components, with 5‐(3‐buten‐1‐yn‐1‐yl)‐2,2′‐bithiophene (5‐BBT, 27.63%), αterthienyl (α‐T, 14.95%),1,8‐cineole (5.56%) and cis‐β‐ocimene (5.01%) being the four major constituents. Based bioactivity‐directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of 5‐BBT, 5‐(4‐isovaleroyloxybut‐1‐ynyl)‐2,2′‐bithiophene (5‐IBT) and αT as active compounds. The essential oil of E. grijsii exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Culex pipiens pallens with LC50 values of 2.65 μg/mL, 3.43 μg/mL and 1.47 μg/mL, respectively. The isolated thiophenes, 5‐BBT and 5‐IBT, possessed strong larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus(LC50 = 0.34 μg/mL and 0.45 μg/mL, respectively) and An. sinensis(LC50 = 1.36 μg/mL and 5.36 μg/mL, respectively). The two isolated thiophenes also had LC50 values against the fourth instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens of 0.12 μg/mL and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The findings indicated that the essential oil of E. grijsii roots and the isolated thiophenes have an excellent potential for use in the control of Ae.albopictus, An. sinensis and C. pipiens pallens larvae and could be used in the search for new, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from the Fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 306; doi:10.3390/molecules22020306
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
The fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims is an edible and sweet wild fruit. In our previous study, the fruit was found to have a strong antioxidant property. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed to extract natural antioxidants from the
[...] Read more.
The fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims is an edible and sweet wild fruit. In our previous study, the fruit was found to have a strong antioxidant property. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed to extract natural antioxidants from the fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims, and a response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of UAE to maximize the extraction efficiency. The influence of five independent extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extracting time, temperature, and ultrasound power) on the extraction efficiency were investigated using a single factor experiment, and then a central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the interaction of three key parameters. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 42.98% ethanol, 28.29 mL/g solvent/material ratio, 34.29 min extracting time, 60 °C temperature, and 600 W ultrasound power. Under these conditions, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of the extracts was 1074.61 ± 32.56 μmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW). Compared with conventional maceration (723.27 ± 11.61 μmol Trolox/g DW) and Soxhlet extraction methods (518.37 ± 23.23 μmol Trolox/g DW), the UAE method improved the extraction efficiency, in a shorter period of time. In addition, epicatechin gallate, epicatechin, rutin, epigallocatechin, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin, were identified and quantified in the fruit extracts of Melastoma sanguineum Sims by UPLC-MS/MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 16 New Hybrids from Tetrahydropyrans Derivatives and Morita˗Baylis˗Hillman Adducts: In Vitro Screening against Leishmania donovani
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 207; doi:10.3390/molecules22020207
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
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Abstract
Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala‐aza, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, usually fatal in the absence of treatment in 95% of cases. The
[...] Read more.
Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala‐aza, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, usually fatal in the absence of treatment in 95% of cases. The Morita‐Baylis‐Hillman adducts (MBHAs) are being explored as drug candidates against several diseases, one of them being leishmaniasis. We present here the design, synthesis and in vitro screening against Leishmania donovani of sixteen new molecular hybrids from analgesic/antiinflammatory tetrahydropyrans derivatives and Morita˗Baylis˗Hillman adducts. First, acrylates were synthesized from analgesic/anti‐inflammatory tetrahydropyrans using acrylic acid under TsOH as a catalyst (70–75% yields). After the 16 new MBHAs were prepared in moderate to good yields (60–95%) promoted by microwave irradiation or low temperature (0 °C) in protic and aprotic medium. The hybrids were evaluated in vitro on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani by determining their inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50), 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50), selectivity index (HC50/IC50,), and comparing to Amphotericin B, chosen as the anti‐leishmanial reference drug. The hybrid which presents the bromine atom in its chemical structure presents high leishmanicide activity and the high selectivity index in red blood cells (SIrb > 180.19), compared with the highly‐toxic reference drug (SIrb = 33.05), indicating that the bromine hybrid is a promising compound for further biological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Drug Discovery Approaches against Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Products as Chemopreventive Agents by Potential Inhibition of the Kinase Domain in ErbB Receptors
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 308; doi:10.3390/molecules22020308
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
Small molecules found in natural products provide therapeutic benefits due to their pharmacological or biological activity, which may increase or decrease the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER), a promising target in the modification of signaling cascades involved in excessive cellular
[...] Read more.
Small molecules found in natural products provide therapeutic benefits due to their pharmacological or biological activity, which may increase or decrease the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER), a promising target in the modification of signaling cascades involved in excessive cellular growth. In this study, in silico molecular protein-ligand docking protocols were performed with AutoDock Vina in order to evaluate the interaction of 800 natural compounds (NPs) from the NatProd Collection (http://www.msdiscovery.com/natprod.html), with four human HER family members: HER1 (PDB: 2ITW), HER2 (PDB: 3PP0), HER3 (PDB: 3LMG) and HER4 (PDB: 2R4B). The best binding affinity values (kcal/mol) for docking pairs were obtained for HER1-podototarin (−10.7), HER2-hecogenin acetate (−11.2), HER3-hesperidin (−11.5) and HER4-theaflavin (−10.7). The reliability of the theoretical calculations was evaluated employing published data on HER inhibition correlated with in silico binding calculations. IC50 values followed a significant linear relationship with the theoretical binding Affinity data for HER1 (R = 0.656, p < 0.0001) and HER2 (R = 0.543, p < 0.0001), but not for HER4 (R = 0.364, p > 0.05). In short, this methodology allowed the identification of several NPs as HER inhibitors, being useful in the discovery and design of more potent and selective anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ent-Abietanoids Isolated from Isodon serra
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 309; doi:10.3390/molecules22020309
Received: 17 January 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
Four new ent-abietane diterpenoids, along with four known ones were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon serra, a traditional Chinese folk medicine. The new diterpenoids were named as serrin K (1), xerophilusin XVII (2), and enanderianins
[...] Read more.
Four new ent-abietane diterpenoids, along with four known ones were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon serra, a traditional Chinese folk medicine. The new diterpenoids were named as serrin K (1), xerophilusin XVII (2), and enanderianins Q and R (3 and 4), while the known ones were identified as rubescansin J (5), (3α,14β)-3,18-[(1-methylethane-1,1-diyl)dioxy]-ent-abieta-7,15(17)-diene-14,16-diol (6), xerophilusin XIV (7), and enanderianin P (8), respectively. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature. Compound 1 showed remarkable inhibitory activity towards NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells (IC50 = 1.8 μM) and weak cytotoxicity towards five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, SW480). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diterpene and Its Significance in Natural Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle Role of Quinone Reductase 2 in the Antimalarial Properties of Indolone-Type Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 210; doi:10.3390/molecules22020210
Received: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
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Abstract
Indolone-N-oxides have antiplasmodial properties against Plasmodium falciparum at the erythrocytic stage, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. The mechanism of action of indolone derivatives involves the production of free radicals, which follows their bioreduction by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we
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Indolone-N-oxides have antiplasmodial properties against Plasmodium falciparum at the erythrocytic stage, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. The mechanism of action of indolone derivatives involves the production of free radicals, which follows their bioreduction by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we hypothesized that human quinone reductase 2 (hQR2), known to act as a flavin redox switch upon binding to the broadly used antimalarial chloroquine, could be involved in the activity of the redox-active indolone derivatives. Therefore, we investigated the role of hQR2 in the reduction of indolone derivatives. We analyzed the interaction between hQR2 and several indolone-type derivatives by examining enzymatic kinetics, the substrate/protein complex structure with X-ray diffraction analysis, and the production of free radicals with electron paramagnetic resonance. The reduction of each compound in cells overexpressing hQR2 was compared to its reduction in naïve cells. This process could be inhibited by the specific hQR2 inhibitor, S29434. These results confirmed that the anti-malarial activity of indolone-type derivatives was linked to their ability to serve as hQR2 substrates and not as hQR2 inhibitors as reported for chloroquine, leading to the possibility that substrate of hQR2 could be considered as a new avenue for the design of new antimalarial compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 8-Morpholinoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine Derivatives Bearing Phenylpyridine/Phenylpyrimidine-Carboxamides
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 310; doi:10.3390/molecules22020310
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
Herein we designed and synthesized three series of novel 8-morpholinoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives bearing phenylpyridine/phenylpyrimidine-carboxamides (compounds 12ag, 13ag and 14ag). All the compounds were evaluated for their IC50 values against three cancer cell lines
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Herein we designed and synthesized three series of novel 8-morpholinoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives bearing phenylpyridine/phenylpyrimidine-carboxamides (compounds 12ag, 13ag and 14ag). All the compounds were evaluated for their IC50 values against three cancer cell lines (A549, PC-3 and MCF-7). Most of the target compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the three cancer cell lines. Two selected compounds 14b, 14c were further tested for their activity against PI3Kα kinase, and the results indicated that compound 14c showed inhibitory activity against PI3Kα kinase with an IC50 value of 1.25 μM. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and pharmacological results indicated that the replacement of the thiopyranopyrimidine with an imidazopyrazine was beneficial for the activity and the position of aryl group has a significant influence to the activity of these compounds. The compounds 13ag in which an aryl group substituted at the C-4 position of the pyridine ring were more active than 12ag substituted at the C-5 position. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of compounds 14ag bearing phenylpyrimidine-carboxamides was better than that of the compounds 12ag, 13ag bearing phenylpyridine-carboxamides. Furthermore, the substituents on the benzene ring also had a significant impact on the cytotoxicity and the pharmacological results showed that electron donating groups were beneficial to the cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Application of the Crystalline Sponge Method to Revise the Structure of the Phenalenone Fuliginone
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 211; doi:10.3390/molecules22020211
Received: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
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Abstract
The structure of fuliginone was revised from a phenyl substituted phenalenone to a hydroxyl substituted phenalenone as a result of its re‐purification via HPLC with subsequent NMR analysis together with an independent synthesis and analysis of the crystal structure, which was secured via
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The structure of fuliginone was revised from a phenyl substituted phenalenone to a hydroxyl substituted phenalenone as a result of its re‐purification via HPLC with subsequent NMR analysis together with an independent synthesis and analysis of the crystal structure, which was secured via the crystalline sponge method. On‐flow High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (HPLC‐NMR) was employed to confirm the presence of the natural product in the plant extract and to monitor for any possible degradation or conversion of the compound. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide versus Ethanol Extracts from Leaves of Perilla frutescens Britt. Radiation Mutant
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 311; doi:10.3390/molecules22020311
Received: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we aimed to compare supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and ethanol extraction for isoegomaketone (IK) content in perilla leaf extracts and to identify the optimal method. We measured the IK concentration using HPLC and inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7
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In this study, we aimed to compare supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and ethanol extraction for isoegomaketone (IK) content in perilla leaf extracts and to identify the optimal method. We measured the IK concentration using HPLC and inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells from the extracts. The IK concentration was 10-fold higher in perilla leaf extracts by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) compared with that in perilla leaf extracts by ethanol extraction (EE). When the extracts were treated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at 25 μg/mL, the SFE inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleutkin-6 (IL-6), interferon-β (IFN-β), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to a much greater extent compared with EE. Taken together, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is considered the optimal process for obtaining high IK content and anti-inflammatory activities in leaf extracts from the P. frutescens Britt. radiation mutant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub- and Supercritical Fluids and Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Immobilized Lipases on Functionalized Silica Particles as Potential Biocatalysts for the Synthesis of Fructose Oleate in an Organic Solvent/Water System
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 212; doi:10.3390/molecules22020212
Received: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
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Abstract
Lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (PFL) wereimmobilized on functionalized silica particles aiming their use in the synthesis of fructose oleate in a tert‐butyl alcohol/water system. Silica particles were chemically modified with octyl (OS), octyl plus glutaraldehyde (OSGlu), octyl plus
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Lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (PFL) wereimmobilized on functionalized silica particles aiming their use in the synthesis of fructose oleate in a tert‐butyl alcohol/water system. Silica particles were chemically modified with octyl (OS), octyl plus glutaraldehyde (OSGlu), octyl plus glyoxyl(OSGlx), and octyl plus epoxy groups(OSEpx). PFL was hyperactivated on all functionalized supports (more than 100% recovered activity) using low protein loading (1 mg/g), however, for TLL, this phenomenon was observed only using octyl‐silica (OS). All prepared biocatalysts exhibited high stability by incubating in tert‐butyl alcohol (half‐lives around 50 h at 65 °C). The biocatalysts prepared using OS and OSGlu as supports showed excellent performance in the synthesis of fructose oleate. High estersynthesis was observed when a small amount of water (1%, v/v) was added to the organic phase, allowing an ester productivity until five times (0.88–0.96 g/L.h) higher than in the absence of water (0.18–0.34 g/L.h) under fixed enzyme concentration (0.51 IU/g of solvent). Maximum ester productivity (16.1–18.1 g/L.h) was achieved for 30 min of reaction catalyzed by immobilized lipases on OS and OSGlu at 8.4 IU/mL of solvent. Operational stability tests showed satisfactory stability after four consecutive cycles of reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 312; doi:10.3390/molecules22020312
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs) content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka,
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To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs) content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O’Neal, and Misty) were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS2). The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b) to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzimidazole Derivatives and Analogs Targeting the NLRP3 Inflammasome
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 213; doi:10.3390/molecules22020213
Received: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
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Abstract
A series of benzo[d]imidazole analogues of thiabenzole were synthesized and their antiinflammatory activities toward NLRP3 (nucleotide‐binding domain leucine‐rich repeat containing protein family,pyrin domain‐containing 3,also known as cryopyrin or NALP3) inflammasome were evaluated in vitro. Two lead compounds, TBZ‐09 and TBZ‐21, were identified by
[...] Read more.
A series of benzo[d]imidazole analogues of thiabenzole were synthesized and their antiinflammatory activities toward NLRP3 (nucleotide‐binding domain leucine‐rich repeat containing protein family,pyrin domain‐containing 3,also known as cryopyrin or NALP3) inflammasome were evaluated in vitro. Two lead compounds, TBZ‐09 and TBZ‐21, were identified by antiproduction of IL‐1β. In the second round of biological evaluation, based on the lead, 34 more compounds were synthesized and their in vitro anti‐inflammatory activities were investigated. Several compounds were identified as anti‐inflammatory agents that can reduce IL‐1β expression in a dosedependent manner. A preliminary structure–activity relationship is also summarized here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Accumulation of Carotenoids and Metabolic Profiling in Different Cultivars of Tagetes Flowers
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 313; doi:10.3390/molecules22020313
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
Species of Tagetes, which belong to the family Asteraceae show different characteristics including, bloom size, shape, and color; plant size; and leaf shape. In this study, we determined the differences in primary metabolites and carotenoid yields among six cultivars from two Tagetes
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Species of Tagetes, which belong to the family Asteraceae show different characteristics including, bloom size, shape, and color; plant size; and leaf shape. In this study, we determined the differences in primary metabolites and carotenoid yields among six cultivars from two Tagetes species, T. erecta and T. patula. In total, we detected seven carotenoids in the examined cultivars: violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. In all the cultivars, lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Furthermore, the contents of each carotenoid in flowers varied depending on the cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA) facilitated metabolic discrimination between Tagetes cultivars, with the exception of Inca Yellow and Discovery Orange. Moreover, PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) results provided a clear discrimination between T. erecta and T. patula. Primary metabolites, including xylose, citric acid, valine, glycine, and galactose were the main components facilitating separation of the species. Positive relationships were apparent between carbon-rich metabolites, including those of the TCA cycle and sugar metabolism, and carotenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics Studies of 12 Alkaloids in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Zuojin and Fan-Zuojin Formulas
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 214; doi:10.3390/molecules22020214
Received: 17 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
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Abstract
Zuojin formula (ZJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisted of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) and Euodiae Fructus (EF), and has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) disease for more than 700 years. Fan-Zuojin formula (FZJ) is a related TCM prescription also consisted
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Zuojin formula (ZJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisted of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) and Euodiae Fructus (EF), and has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) disease for more than 700 years. Fan-Zuojin formula (FZJ) is a related TCM prescription also consisted of CR and EF with the opposite proportion. In recent years, ZJ was getting more attention for its antitumor potential, but the indeterminate pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior restricted its clinical applications, and the PK differences between ZJ and FZJ were also largely unknown. Consequently it is necessary to carry out a full-scale PK study to demonstrate the physiological disposition of ZJ, as well as the comparative PK study between ZJ and FZJ to illustrate the compatibility dose effects. Therefore a liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was established and validated for the determinations of coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine, berberine, 8-oxocoptisine, 8-oxoepiberberine, noroxyhydrastinine, corydaldine, dehydroevodiamine, evodiamine, wuchuyuamide-I, and evocarpine in rat plasma. PK characteristics of 12 alkaloids after oral administration of ZJ and FZJ were compared, and the result was analyzed and discussed with the help of an in silico study. Then an integrated PK study was carried out with the AUC-based weighting method and the total drug concentration method. The established method has been successfully applied to reveal the PK profiles of the 12 alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of ZJ and FZJ. The results showed that: (1) double peaks were observed in the plasma concentration-time (C–T) curves of the alkaloids after ZJ administration; but the C–T curves approximately matched the two-compartment model after FZJ administration; (2) There were wide variations in the absorption levels of these alkaloids; and even for a certain alkaloid, the dose modified systemic exposure levels and elimination rate also varied significantly after administration of ZJ and FZJ extracts. The results could be interpreted as follows: firstly, inhibition effect on GI motility caused by the high content CR alkaloids (especially berberine) in ZJ could delay the Tmax, and increase the absorption and systemic exposure levels of the other alkaloids, and also lead to the double peak phenomenon of these alkaloids. However, for quaternary protoberberine alkaloids (QPA), double peaks were primarily caused by the different Ka value in two intestinal absorption sites. Secondly, absorption was the major obstacle to the systemic exposure level of the alkaloids from CR and EF. In silico and PK studies suggested that the absorption of these alkaloids, except QPAs, mainly depended on their solubility rather than permeability. Thirdly, EF could promote the absorption and accelerate the elimination of QPAs, and had a greater influence on the former than the latter. At last the integrated PK analysis suggested that berberine and dehydroevodiamine could be regarded as the representative components to reflect the PK behaviors of CR and EF alkaloids after administration of ZJ and FZJ. In conclusion, the absorption, elimination and systemic exposure level of these alkaloids were mainly influenced by the proportion of EF and CR, the pharmacological effect on GI motility, and the physicochemical property of these alkaloids. These findings would be helpful for a better understanding of the activities and clinical applications of ZJ, FZJ and other related TCM prescriptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Substitution at the C-3 Position of Catechins Has an Influence on the Binding Affinities against Serum Albumin
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 314; doi:10.3390/molecules22020314
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
It is known that catechins interact with the tryptophan (Trp) residue at the drug-binding site of serum albumin. In this study, we used catechin derivatives to investigate which position of the catechin structure strongly influences the binding affinity against bovine serum albumin (BSA)
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It is known that catechins interact with the tryptophan (Trp) residue at the drug-binding site of serum albumin. In this study, we used catechin derivatives to investigate which position of the catechin structure strongly influences the binding affinity against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). A docking simulation showed that (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) interacted with both Trp residues of BSA (one at drug-binding site I and the other on the molecular surface), mainly by π–π stacking. Fluorescence analysis showed that EGCg and substituted EGCg caused a red shift of the peak wavelength of Trp similarly to warfarin (a drug-binding site I-specific compound), while 3-O-acyl-catechins caused a blue shift. To evaluate the binding affinities, the quenching constants were determined by the Stern–Volmer equation. A gallate ester at the C-3 position increased the quenching constants of the catechins. Against BSA, acyl substitution increased the quenching constant proportionally to the carbon chain lengths of the acyl group, whereas methyl substitution decreased the quenching constant. Against HSA, neither acyl nor methyl substitution affected the quenching constant. In conclusion, substitution at the C-3 position of catechins has an important influence on the binding affinity against serum albumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessCommunication An Easy Approach to Control β-Phase Formation in PFO Films for Optimized Emission Properties
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 315; doi:10.3390/molecules22020315
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
We demonstrate a novel approach to control β-phase content generated in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) films. A very small amount of paraffin oil was used as the additive to the PFO solution in toluene. The β-phase fraction in the spin-coated PFO films can be modified
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We demonstrate a novel approach to control β-phase content generated in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) films. A very small amount of paraffin oil was used as the additive to the PFO solution in toluene. The β-phase fraction in the spin-coated PFO films can be modified from 0% to 20% simply by changing the volume percentage of paraffin oil in the mixed solution. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) study confirmed low β-phase fraction promise better OLEDs device, while high β-phase fraction benefits ASE performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Organic Nanophotonics)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Electro-Optical Properties of Thiol-Ene Polymer Dispersed Cholesteric Liquid Crystal (PDChLC) Films
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 317; doi:10.3390/molecules22020317
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a polymer dispersed cholesteric liquid crystal (PDChLC) film obtained via a one-step fabrication technique based on photopolymerization of a thiol-acrylate reaction system was prepared and characterized for the first time. The effects of the chiral dopant, the influence of thiol
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In this study, a polymer dispersed cholesteric liquid crystal (PDChLC) film obtained via a one-step fabrication technique based on photopolymerization of a thiol-acrylate reaction system was prepared and characterized for the first time. The effects of the chiral dopant, the influence of thiol monomer functionality and content on the morphology and subsequent performance of the PDChLC films were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of chiral dopant slightly increased the driving voltage, but decreased the off-state transmittance significantly. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) shown that the liquid crystal (LC) droplet size decreased at first and then increased with the increasing amount of thiol monomer functionality, while increasing the thiol content increased the LC droplet size. Correspondingly, the electro-optical switching behavior was directly dependent on LC droplet size. By tuning the raw material composition, PDChLC film with optimized electro-optical performance was prepared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Organic Nanophotonics)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Convergent Synthesis of the Potent Antiglaucoma Agent Tafluprost
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 217; doi:10.3390/molecules22020217
Received: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
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Abstract
Tafluprost (AFP-168, 5) is a unique 15-deoxy-15,15-difluoro-16-phenoxy prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) analog used as an efficacious ocular hypotensive agent in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive therapy to β-blockers. A novel convergent synthesis of 5 was developed employing
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Tafluprost (AFP-168, 5) is a unique 15-deoxy-15,15-difluoro-16-phenoxy prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) analog used as an efficacious ocular hypotensive agent in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive therapy to β-blockers. A novel convergent synthesis of 5 was developed employing Julia–Lythgoe olefination of the structurally advanced prostaglandin phenylsulfone 16, also successfully applied for manufacturing of pharmaceutical grade latanoprost (2), travoprost (3) and bimatoprost (4), with an aldehyde ω-chain synthon 17. The use of the same prostaglandin phenylsulfone 16, as a starting material in parallel syntheses of all commercially available antiglaucoma PGF2α analogs 2–5, significantly reduces manufacturing costs resulting from its synthesis on an industrial scale and development of technological documentation. Another key aspect of the route developed is deoxydifluorination of a trans-13,14-en-15-one 30 with Deoxo-Fluor. Subsequent hydrolysis of protecting groups and final esterification of acid 6 yielded tafluprost (5). The main advantages are the preparation of high purity tafluprost (5) and the application of comparatively cheap reagents. The preparation and identification of two other tafluprost acid derivatives, tafluprost methyl ester (32) and tafluprost ethyl amide (33), are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Three Chalconoids and a Pterocarpene from the Roots of Tephrosia aequilata
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 318; doi:10.3390/molecules22020318
Received: 7 January 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
In our search for new antiplasmodial agents, the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia aequilata was investigated, and observed to cause 100% mortality of the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum at a 10 mg/mL
[...] Read more.
In our search for new antiplasmodial agents, the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia aequilata was investigated, and observed to cause 100% mortality of the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum at a 10 mg/mL concentration. From this extract three new chalconoids, E-2′,6′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-(2′′,2′′-dimethyl)pyranoretrochalcone (1, aequichalcone A), Z-2′,6′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-(2′′,2′′-dimethyl)pyranoretrochalcone (2, aequichalcone B), 4′′-ethoxy-3′′-hydroxypraecansone B (3, aequichalcone C) and a new pterocarpene, 3,4:8,9-dimethylenedioxy-6a,11a-pterocarpene (4), along with seven known compounds were isolated. The purified compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Compound 1 slowly converts into 2 in solution, and thus the latter may have been enriched, or formed, during the extraction and separation process. The isomeric compounds 1 and 2 were both observed in the crude extract. Some of the isolated constituents showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 218; doi:10.3390/molecules22020218
Received: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
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Abstract
The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted
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The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on MFA results correctly classified 100% of the samples into GI in 2015 and 2016. Classification according to grade was achieved based on the results for elements such as Cu, Na, Fe, volatiles including C6 and aryl alcohols, hydrolytically-released volatiles such as (Z)-linalool oxide and vitispirane, pH, TSS, alanine and proline. Correct classification through DA according to grade was 100% for both vintages. Significant correlations were observed between climate, GI, grade, and berry composition. Climate influenced the synthesis of free and bound volatiles as well as amino acids, sugars, and acids, as a result of higher temperatures and precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle The Transcription Profile Unveils the Cardioprotective Effect of Aspalathin against Lipid Toxicity in an In Vitro H9c2 Model
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 219; doi:10.3390/molecules22020219
Received: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
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Abstract
Aspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect
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Aspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect of aspalathin in an isolated cell-based system, without the influence of any variables, was tested using an H9c2 cardiomyocyte model. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose (33 mM) for 48 h before post-treatment with or without aspalathin. Thereafter, RNA was extracted and RT2 PCR Profiler Arrays were used to profile the expression of 336 genes. Results showed that, 57 genes were differentially regulated in the high glucose or high glucose and aspalathin treated groups. Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analysis revealed lipid metabolism and molecular transport as the biological processes altered after high glucose treatment, followed by inflammation and apoptosis. Aspalathin was able to modulate key regulators associated with lipid metabolism (Adipoq, Apob, CD36, Cpt1, Pparγ, Srebf1/2, Scd1 and Vldlr), insulin resistance (Igf1, Akt1, Pde3 and Map2k1), inflammation (Il3, Il6, Jak2, Lepr, Socs3, and Tnf13) and apoptosis (Bcl2 and Chuk). Collectively, our results suggest that aspalathin could reverse metabolic abnormalities by activating Adipoq while modulating the expression of Pparγ and Srebf1/2, decreasing inflammation via Il6/Jak2 pathway, which together with an observed increased expression of Bcl2 prevents myocardium apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Synthesis of Novel Bioactive Thiazolyl-Phthalazinediones under Ultrasound Irradiation
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 319; doi:10.3390/molecules22020319
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
Novel 2-thiazolylphthalazine derivatives were efficiently synthesized under ultrasound irradiation, resulting in high yields and short reaction times after optimization of the reaction conditions. All prepared compounds were fully characterized using spectroscopic methods. They were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative
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Novel 2-thiazolylphthalazine derivatives were efficiently synthesized under ultrasound irradiation, resulting in high yields and short reaction times after optimization of the reaction conditions. All prepared compounds were fully characterized using spectroscopic methods. They were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as for antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activity profile of the tested compounds showed some promising results. The potent activity of compounds 4d, 7b (117% zone inhibition) and 7c (105% zone inhibition) against Salmonella sp., exceeding that of the reference drug Gentamycin is particularly noteworthy. In general, the newly synthesized thiazolylphthalazine derivatives showed higher antimicrobial activity against the tested Gram-negative bacteria than against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur-Nitrogen Heteroaromatics)
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Open AccessArticle Trypanocidal Activity of Quinoxaline 1,4 Di-N-oxide Derivatives as Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 220; doi:10.3390/molecules22020220
Received: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 1 February 2017
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Abstract
Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide public health problem. In this work, we evaluated 26 new propyl and isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as potential trypanocidal agents. Additionally, molecular docking and enzymatic assays on trypanothione reductase (TR) were performed to provide a
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Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide public health problem. In this work, we evaluated 26 new propyl and isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as potential trypanocidal agents. Additionally, molecular docking and enzymatic assays on trypanothione reductase (TR) were performed to provide a basis for their potential mechanism of action. Seven compounds showed better trypanocidal activity on epimastigotes than the reference drugs, and only four displayed activity on trypomastigotes; T-085 was the lead compound with an IC50 = 59.9 and 73.02 µM on NINOA and INC-5 strain, respectively. An in silico analysis proposed compound T-085 as a potential TR inhibitor with better affinity than the natural substrate. Enzymatic analysis revealed that T-085 inhibits parasite TR non-competitively. Compound T-085 carries a carbonyl, a CF3, and an isopropyl carboxylate group at 2-, 3- and 7-position, respectively. These results suggest the chemical structure of this compound as a good starting point for the design and synthesis of novel trypanocidal derivatives with higher TR inhibitory potency and lower toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 320; doi:10.3390/molecules22020320
Received: 3 December 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
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Abstract
A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine
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A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Production of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Performance of Magnetic Graphene Oxide-Immobilized Laccase and Its Application for the Decolorization of Dyes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 221; doi:10.3390/molecules22020221
Received: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 1 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) nanomaterials were synthesized based on covalent binding of amino Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the graphene oxide (GO), and the prepared MGO was successfully applied as support for the immobilization of laccase. The MGO-laccase was characterized by transmission
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In this study, magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) nanomaterials were synthesized based on covalent binding of amino Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the graphene oxide (GO), and the prepared MGO was successfully applied as support for the immobilization of laccase. The MGO-laccase was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Compared with free laccase, the MGO-laccase exhibited better pH and thermal stabilities. The optimum pH and temperature were confirmed as pH 3.0 and 35 °C. Moreover, the MGO-laccase exhibited sufficient magnetic response and satisfied reusability after being retained by magnetic separation. The MGO-laccase maintained 59.8% activity after ten uses. MGO-laccase were finally utilized in the decolorization of dye solutions and the decolorization rate of crystal violet (CV), malachite green (MG), and brilliant green (BG) reached 94.7% of CV, 95.6% of MG, and 91.4% of BG respectively. The experimental results indicated the MGO-laccase nanomaterials had a good catalysis ability to decolorize dyes in aqueous solution. Compared with the free enzyme, the employment of MGO as enzyme immobilization support could efficiently enhance the availability and facilitate the application of laccase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Neoflavonoids as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication by Targeting the Tat and NF-κB Pathways
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 321; doi:10.3390/molecules22020321
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
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Abstract
Twenty-eight neoflavonoids have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against HIV-1. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase reporter gene. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR
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Twenty-eight neoflavonoids have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against HIV-1. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase reporter gene. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR and Tat protein. Seven 4-phenylchromen-2-one derivatives showed HIV transcriptional inhibitory activity but only the phenylchrome-2-one 10 inhibited NF-κB and displayed anti-Tat activity simultaneously. Compounds 10, 14, and 25, inhibited HIV replication in both targets at concentrations <25 μM. The assays of these synthetic 4-phenylchromen-2-ones may aid in the investigation of some aspects of the anti-HIV activity of such compounds and could serve as a scaffold for designing better anti-HIV compounds, which may lead to a potential anti-HIV therapeutic drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Quantification of Nine New Furanocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 322; doi:10.3390/molecules22020322
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of new furanocoumarins with long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely andafocoumarins A–H and J, have been isolated from the dried roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi (Angelicae Dahuricae radix) in our previous study, among which andafocoumarins A and B were demonstrated to have
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A series of new furanocoumarins with long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely andafocoumarins A–H and J, have been isolated from the dried roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi (Angelicae Dahuricae radix) in our previous study, among which andafocoumarins A and B were demonstrated to have better anti-inflammatory activity than the positive controls. In this work, a sensitive, accurate, and efficient ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of above-mentioned nine compounds in four cultivars of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex 2.6u C18 100 Å column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm). The mobile phases were comprised of acetonitrile and water with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Using the established method, all components could be easily separated within 12 min. With the multiple reaction monitor mode, all components were detected in positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated with injection precision, linearity, lower limit of detection, lower limit of quantification, precision, recovery, and stability, respectively. The final results demonstrated that the method was accurate and efficient, which could be used to simultaneously quantify the nine andafocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. The results also indicated that in different batches of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, some of the andafocoumarins were significantly different in terms of content. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle The Essential Oil of Monarda didyma L. (Lamiaceae) Exerts Phytotoxic Activity in Vitro against Various Weed Seed
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 222; doi:10.3390/molecules22020222
Received: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene
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The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene (3.7%), and camphene (3.4%). The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds, demonstrating good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. The exposure of the employed weed seeds to M. didyma essential oil and thymol solution (59.3%) increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), markers of oxidative stress, in emerging 5-day-old rootlets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel Pyrazinamide Derivatives Based on 3-Chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide and Their Antimicrobial Evaluation
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 223; doi:10.3390/molecules22020223
Received: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
Aminodehalogenation of 3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide with variously substituted benzylamines yielded a series of fifteen 3-benzylaminopyrazine-2-carboxamides. Four compounds possessed in vitro whole cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv that was at least equivalent to that of the standard pyrazinamide. MIC values ranged from 6 to 42
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Aminodehalogenation of 3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide with variously substituted benzylamines yielded a series of fifteen 3-benzylaminopyrazine-2-carboxamides. Four compounds possessed in vitro whole cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv that was at least equivalent to that of the standard pyrazinamide. MIC values ranged from 6 to 42 μM. The best MIC (6 μM) was displayed by 3-[(4-methylbenzyl)amino]pyrazine-2-carboxamide (8) that also showed low cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line (IC50 ≥ 250 μM). Only moderate activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. No activity was detected against any of tested fungal strains. Molecular docking with mycobacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA) was performed to investigate the possible target of the prepared compounds. Active compounds shared common binding interactions of known InhAinhibitors. Antimycobacterial activity of the title compounds was compared to the previously published benzylamino-substituted pyrazines with differing substitution on the pyrazine core (carbonitrile moiety). The title series possessed comparable activity and lower cytotoxicity than molecules containing a carbonitrile group on the pyrazine ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptomic Analysis of Leaf in Tree Peony Reveals Differentially Expressed Pigments Genes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 324; doi:10.3390/molecules22020324
Received: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is an important traditional flower in China. Besides its beautiful flower, the leaf of tree peony has also good ornamental value owing to its leaf color change in spring. So far, the molecular mechanism of leaf color change
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Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is an important traditional flower in China. Besides its beautiful flower, the leaf of tree peony has also good ornamental value owing to its leaf color change in spring. So far, the molecular mechanism of leaf color change in tree peony is unclear. In this study, the pigment level and transcriptome of three different color stages of tree peony leaf were analyzed. The purplish red leaf was rich in anthocyanin, while yellowish green leaf was rich in chlorophyll and carotenoid. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 4302 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated, and 4225 were downregulated in the purplish red leaf vs. yellowish green leaf. Among these DEGs, eight genes were predicted to participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis, eight genes were predicted involved in porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, and 10 genes were predicted to participate in carotenoid metabolism. In addition, 27 MYBs, 20 bHLHs, 36 WD40 genes were also identified from DEGs. Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) is the key gene that controls the anthocyanin level in tree peony leaf. Protochlorophyllide oxido-reductase (POR) is the key gene which regulated the chlorophyll content in tree peony leaf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Antiplasmodial Activity, Cytotoxicity and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Cyclopeptide Alkaloids
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 224; doi:10.3390/molecules22020224
Received: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
Cyclopeptide alkaloids are polyamidic, macrocyclic compounds, containing a 13-, 14-, or 15-membered ring. The ring system consists of a hydroxystyrylamine moiety, an amino acid, and a β-hydroxy amino acid; attached to the ring is a side chain, comprised of one or two more
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Cyclopeptide alkaloids are polyamidic, macrocyclic compounds, containing a 13-, 14-, or 15-membered ring. The ring system consists of a hydroxystyrylamine moiety, an amino acid, and a β-hydroxy amino acid; attached to the ring is a side chain, comprised of one or two more amino acid moieties. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was shown before for several compounds belonging to this class, and in this paper the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of ten more cyclopeptide alkaloids are reported. Combining these results and the IC50 values that were reported by our group previously, a library consisting of 19 cyclopeptide alkaloids was created. A qualitative SAR (structure-activity relationship) study indicated that a 13-membered macrocyclic ring is preferable over a 14-membered one. Furthermore, the presence of a β-hydroxy proline moiety could correlate with higher antiplasmodial activity, and methoxylation (or, to a lesser extent, hydroxylation) of the styrylamine moiety could be important for displaying antiplasmodial activity. In addition, QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models were developed, using PLS (partial least squares regression) and MLR (multiple linear regression). On the one hand, these models allow for the indication of the most important descriptors (molecular properties) responsible for the antiplasmodial activity. Additionally, predictions made for interesting structures did not contradict the expectations raised in the qualitative SAR study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Alkaloids)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Total Biflavonoids Extract from Selaginella doederleinii by HPLC-QTOF-MS and Its In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Effects
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 325; doi:10.3390/molecules22020325
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
Selaginella doederleinii Hieron has been traditionally used as a folk antitumor herbal medicine in China. In this paper, the phytochemical components of the total biflavonoids extract from S. doederleinii were studied by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass
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Selaginella doederleinii Hieron has been traditionally used as a folk antitumor herbal medicine in China. In this paper, the phytochemical components of the total biflavonoids extract from S. doederleinii were studied by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS) in negative ion mode, and their in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects were evaluated. Four types of biflavonoids from S. doederleinii, including IC3′–IIC8′′, IC3′–IIC6′′, IC3′–IIC3′′′, and C–O linked biflavonoids were examined originally using QTOF MS/MS. The fragmentation behavior of IC3′–IIC3′′′ linked biflavonoids was reported for the first time. A total of twenty biflavonoids were identified or tentatively characterized and eight biflavonoids were found from S. doederleinii for the first time. Furthermore, the 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thizolyl)-2,5-diphenyltertazolium bromide (MTT) assay and xenograft model of mouse lewis lung cancer(LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice revealed favorable anticancer properties of the total biflavonoids extracts from S. doederleinii. The results of this work could provide useful knowledge for the identification of biflavonoids in herbal samples and further insights into the chemopreventive function of this plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Structural Evaluation of Organo-Ruthenium Complexes with β-Diketonates
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 326; doi:10.3390/molecules22020326
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
Four novel ruthenium organometallic complexes: [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-bromophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)Cl] (1), [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-bromophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)pta]PF6 (2), [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-iodophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)Cl] (3) and [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-iodophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)pta]PF6 (4) were synthesized and
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Four novel ruthenium organometallic complexes: [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-bromophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)Cl] (1), [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-bromophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)pta]PF6 (2), [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-iodophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)Cl] (3) and [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-iodophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)pta]PF6 (4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR), UV-Vis, NMR and mass spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures and spectroscopic data were compared to the previously published complexes [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1,3-butanedione)Cl] (5) and [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-butanedione)pta]PF6 (6). The pairs of complexes 1 and 3 as well as 2 and 4 are isostructural, with the former crystallizing in triclinic P-1 and the latter in monoclinic P21/c. The ruthenium(II) ion is found in a pseudo-octahedral “piano-stool” geometry in all compounds. Bond lengths and angles are consistent with other complexes of this type. Complexes 2 and 4 exhibit some moderate dynamic disorder. The lack of hydrogen bonding and major π-π interactions means that most of intramolecular interactions are fairly weak and involve halogen atoms present. This was further confirmed by 1H-NMR spectra, where a significant difference is observed only on the ligand near the halogen atom, following an expected trend. The combined data show that the difference in any activity depends substantially on the type of the ligand′s substituted halogen atom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Reactivity Theory Study of Advanced Glycation Endproduct Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 226; doi:10.3390/molecules22020226
Received: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several compounds with the known ability to perform as inhibitors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) have been studied with Density Functional Theory (DFT) through the use of anumberofdensityfunctionalswhoseaccuracyhasbeentestedacrossabroadspectrumofdatabases in Chemistry and Physics. The chemical reactivity descriptors for these systems have been calculated through
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Several compounds with the known ability to perform as inhibitors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) have been studied with Density Functional Theory (DFT) through the use of anumberofdensityfunctionalswhoseaccuracyhasbeentestedacrossabroadspectrumofdatabases in Chemistry and Physics. The chemical reactivity descriptors for these systems have been calculated through Conceptual DFT in an attempt to relate their intrinsic chemical reactivity with the ability to inhibit the action of glycating carbonyl compounds on amino acids and proteins. This knowledge could be useful in the design and development of new drugs which can be potential medicines for diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Theoretical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Green Hydroselenation of Aryl Alkynes: Divinyl Selenides as a Precursor of Resveratrol
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 327; doi:10.3390/molecules22020327
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
A simple and efficient protocol to prepare divinyl selenides has been developed by the regio- and stereoselective addition of sodium selenide species to aryl alkynes. The nucleophilic species was generates in situ, from the reaction of elemental selenium with NaBH4,
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A simple and efficient protocol to prepare divinyl selenides has been developed by the regio- and stereoselective addition of sodium selenide species to aryl alkynes. The nucleophilic species was generates in situ, from the reaction of elemental selenium with NaBH4, utilizing PEG-400 as the solvent. Several divinyl selenides were obtained in moderate to excellent yields with selectivity for the (Z,Z)-isomer by a one-step procedure that was carried out at 60 °C in short reaction times. The methodology was extended to tellurium, giving the desired divinyl tellurides in good yields. Furthermore, the Fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of bis(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) selenide 3f with (4-methoxyphenyl)magnesium bromide 5 afforded resveratrol trimethyl ether 6 in 57% yield. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Study of Intramolecular Interactions in Peri-Substituted Naphthalenes: Chalcogen and Hydrogen Bonds
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 227; doi:10.3390/molecules22020227
Received: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
A theoretical study of the peri interactions, both intramolecular hydrogen (HB) and chalcogen bonds (YB), in 1-hydroxy-8YH-naphthalene, 1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-di-YH-naphthalene, and 1,5-dihydroxy-4,8-di-YH-naphthalene, with Y = O, S, and Se was carried out. The systems with a OH:Y hydrogen bond are the most stable ones followed
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A theoretical study of the peri interactions, both intramolecular hydrogen (HB) and chalcogen bonds (YB), in 1-hydroxy-8YH-naphthalene, 1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-di-YH-naphthalene, and 1,5-dihydroxy-4,8-di-YH-naphthalene, with Y = O, S, and Se was carried out. The systems with a OH:Y hydrogen bond are the most stable ones followed by those with a chalcogen O:Y interaction, those with a YH:O hydrogen bond (Y = S and Se) being the least stable ones. The electron density values at the hydrogen bond critical points indicate that they have partial covalent character. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis shows stabilization due to the charge transfer between lone pair orbitals towards empty Y-H that correlate with the interatomic distances. The electron density shift maps and non-covalent indexes in the different systems are consistent with the relative strength of the interactions. The structures found on the CSD were used to compare the experimental and calculated results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Diastereoselective Synthesis of Spirocyclopropanes under Mild Conditions via Formal [2 + 1] Cycloadditions Using 2,3-Dioxo-4-benzylidene-pyrrolidines
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 328; doi:10.3390/molecules22020328
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
A highly diastereoselective cyclopropanation of cyclic enones with sulfur ylides was developed under catalyst-free conditions, producing multifunctional spirocyclopropanes in generally excellent yields (up to 99% yield and >99:1 d.r.). The asymmetric version of this method was realized by using an easily available chiral
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A highly diastereoselective cyclopropanation of cyclic enones with sulfur ylides was developed under catalyst-free conditions, producing multifunctional spirocyclopropanes in generally excellent yields (up to 99% yield and >99:1 d.r.). The asymmetric version of this method was realized by using an easily available chiral sulfur ylide, affording products with moderate to good stereoselectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Seed Oil Using Subcritical Butane: Characterization and Process Optimization
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 228; doi:10.3390/molecules22020228
Received: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of
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In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of 32.80 min, and particle size of 0.26 mm. No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values. The physical and chemical properties of the oil showed that the oil could be used as edible oil. Fatty acid composition of oils obtained by subcritical butane under the optimum conditions and by accelerated solvent extraction showed negligible difference. The oils were rich in linoleic acid (42.71%–42.80%), linolenic acid (26.03%-26.15%), and oleic acid (14.24%-14.40%). The results revealed that the proposed method was feasible, and this essay shows the way to exploit fenugreek seeds by subcritical butane extraction under the scope of edible oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub- and Supercritical Fluids and Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 229; doi:10.3390/molecules22020229
Received: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica) was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments). Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated
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In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica) was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments). Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid) (2:2:1:5, v/v), yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin), F3 (luteoloside), F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation). The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1), lonicerin (2), rutin (3), rhoifolin (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6), hyperoside (7), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9) were obtained, respectively, with the purities over 94% as determined by HPLC. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H- and 13C-NMR. Antioxidant activities were tested, and the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Oxidation of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) to 2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF)
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 329; doi:10.3390/molecules22020329
Received: 15 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF) is an important biorenewable building block, namely for the manufacture of new polymers that may replace existing materials derived from limited fossil fuel resources. The current reported methods for the preparation of DFF are mainly derived from the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
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2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF) is an important biorenewable building block, namely for the manufacture of new polymers that may replace existing materials derived from limited fossil fuel resources. The current reported methods for the preparation of DFF are mainly derived from the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and, to a lesser extent, directly from fructose. 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) has been considered an alternative to HMF as an intermediate building block due to its advantages regarding stability, polarity, and availability from glucose and cellulose. The only reported method for the transformation of CMF to DFF is restricted to the use of DMSO as the solvent and oxidant. We envisioned that the transformation could be performed using more attractive conditions. To that end, we explored the oxidation of CMF to DFF by screening several oxidants such as H2O2, oxone, and pyridine N-oxide (PNO); different heating methods, namely thermal and microwave irradiation (MWI); and also flow conditions. The combination of PNO (4 equiv.) and Cu(OTf)2 (0.5 equiv.) in acetonitrile was identified as the best system, which lead to the formation of DFF in 54% yield under MWI for 5 min at 160 °C. Consequently, a range of different heterogeneous copper catalysts were tested, which allowed for catalyst reuse. Similar results were also observed under flow conditions using copper immobilized on silica under thermal heating at 160 °C for a residence time of 2.7 min. Finally, HMF and 5,5′-oxybis(5-methylene-2-furaldehyde) (OBMF) were the only byproducts identified under the reaction conditions studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Profiling and Identification of Shikonins in Root Periderm of Two Invasive Echium spp. Weeds in Australia
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 330; doi:10.3390/molecules22020330
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract
Metabolic profiling can be successfully implemented to analyse a living system’s response to environmental conditions by providing critical information on an organism’s physiological state at a particular point in time and allowing for both quantitative and qualitative assessment of a specific subset(s) of
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Metabolic profiling can be successfully implemented to analyse a living system’s response to environmental conditions by providing critical information on an organism’s physiological state at a particular point in time and allowing for both quantitative and qualitative assessment of a specific subset(s) of key metabolites. Shikonins are highly reactive chemicals that affect various cell signalling pathways and possess antifungal, antibacterial and allelopathic activity. Based on previous bioassay results, bioactive shikonins, are likely to play important roles in the regulation of rhizosphere interactions with neighbouring plants, microbes and herbivores. An effective platform allowing for rapid identification and accurate profiling of numerous structurally similar, difficult-to-separate bioactive isohexenylnaphthazarins (shikonins) was developed using UHPLC Q-TOF MS. Root periderm tissues of the invasive Australian weeds Echium plantagineum and its congener E. vulgare were extracted overnight in ethanol for shikonin profiling. Shikonin production was evaluated at seedling, rosette and flowering stages. Five populations of each species were compared for qualitative and quantitative differences in shikonin formation. Each species showed little populational variation in qualitative shikonin production; however, shikonin was considerably low in one population of E. plantagineum from Western New South Wales. Seedlings of all populations produced the bioactive metabolite acetylshikonin and production was upregulated over time. Mature plants of both species produced significantly higher total levels of shikonins and isovalerylshikonin > dimethylacrylshikonin > shikonin > acetylshikonin in mature E. plantagineum. Although qualitative metabolic profiles in both Echium spp. were nearly identical, shikonin abundance in mature plant periderm was approximately 2.5 times higher in perennial E. vulgare extracts in comparison to those of the annual E. plantagineum. These findings contribute to our understanding of the biosynthesis of shikonins in roots of two related invasive plants and their expression in relation to plant phenological stage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ZYZ-772 Prevents Cardiomyocyte Injury by Suppressing Nox4-Derived ROS Production and Apoptosis
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 331; doi:10.3390/molecules22020331
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract
Nox-dependent signaling plays critical roles in the development of heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart offers a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. In the present work, a
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Nox-dependent signaling plays critical roles in the development of heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart offers a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. In the present work, a novel flavonoid was isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Its structure was elucidated as Quercetin-3-O-(6′′-O-α-l-rhamnopyransoyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (ZYZ-772) for the first time. ZYZ-772 exhibited significant cardio-protective property against CoCl2 induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte cells injury. In CoCl2 stimulated cardiomyocyte injury, ZYZ-772 inhibited expression of Nox4, and alleviated ROS overproduction. Importantly, ROS triggered MAPKs phosphorylation and P53 signaling mediated apoptosis were restored by ZYZ-772. Our findings present the first piece of evidence for the therapeutic properties of ZYZ-772 in preventing cardiomyocyte injury, which could be attributed to the suppression of Nox4/MAPKs/P53 axis. This will offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiac ischemia disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product: A Continuing Source of Novel Drug Leads)
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Open AccessArticle Construction and Biological Evaluation of a Novel Integrin ανβ3-Specific Carrier for Targeted siRNA Delivery In Vitro
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 231; doi:10.3390/molecules22020231
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 February 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: The great potential of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy is premised on the effective delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to target tissues and cells. Hence, we aimed at developing and examining a novel integrin αvβ3-specific delivery
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(1) Background: The great potential of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy is premised on the effective delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to target tissues and cells. Hence, we aimed at developing and examining a novel integrin αvβ3-specific delivery carrier for targeted transfection of siRNA to malignant tumor cells; (2) Methods: Arginine-glycine-aspartate motif (RGD) was adopted as a tissue target for specific recognition of integrin αvβ3. To enable siRNA binding, a chimeric peptide was synthesized by adding nonamer arginine residues (9R) at the carboxy terminus of cyclic-RGD dimer, designated as c(RGD)2-9R. The efficiency of 9R peptide transferring siRNA was biologically evaluated in vitro by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and Western blot; (3) Results: An optimal 10:1 molar ratio of c(RGD)2-9R to siRNA was confirmed by the electrophoresis on agarose gels. Both the flow cytometry and confocal microscopy results testified that transfection of c(RGD)2-9R as an siRNA delivery carrier was obviously higher than the naked-siRNA group. The results of Western blot demonstrated that these 9R peptides were able to transduce siRNA to HepG2 cells in vitro, resulting in efficient gene silencing; and (4) Conclusion: The chimeric peptide of c(RGD)2-9R can be developed as an effective siRNA delivery carrier and shows potential as a new strategy for RNAi-based gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Oligonucleotide Conjugates)
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Open AccessArticle Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 232; doi:10.3390/molecules22020232
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by
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This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration (X1), material-to-liquid ratio (X2), ultrasonic temperature (X3) and power (X4) for an optimal total phenol yield (Y1) and DPPH• antioxidant activity (Y2). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water (v:v) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What’s more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta-O-galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 332; doi:10.3390/molecules22020332
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction
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The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time—were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE), MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle One-Pot Conversion of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) into Soy-Based Polyurethanes by MoCl2O2 Catalysis
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 333; doi:10.3390/molecules22020333
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract
An innovative and eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes is proposed via the epoxy-ring opening of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with methanol, followed by the reaction of methoxy bio-polyols intermediates with 2,6-tolyl-diisocyanate (TDI). Both synthetic steps, methanolysis and polyurethane linkage formation, are promoted
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An innovative and eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes is proposed via the epoxy-ring opening of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with methanol, followed by the reaction of methoxy bio-polyols intermediates with 2,6-tolyl-diisocyanate (TDI). Both synthetic steps, methanolysis and polyurethane linkage formation, are promoted by a unique catalyst, molybdenum(VI) dichloride dioxide (MoCl2O2), which makes this procedure an efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safer method amenable to industrial scale-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Polysaccharides with Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities from the Edible Mushroom Oudemansiella radicata
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 234; doi:10.3390/molecules22020234
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
The preliminary structure, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective activities of water-soluble polysaccharides (ORWP) and alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ORAP), prepared from the mushroom Oudemansiella radicata, were investigated. Both ORWP and ORAP were heteropolysaccharides with mannose, glucose and galactose being the main monosaccharide
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The preliminary structure, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective activities of water-soluble polysaccharides (ORWP) and alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ORAP), prepared from the mushroom Oudemansiella radicata, were investigated. Both ORWP and ORAP were heteropolysaccharides with mannose, glucose and galactose being the main monosaccharide components. Regarding the antioxidant activities, ORWP and ORAP showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects, as well as moderate reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity. For the hepatoprotective activity, administration of ORWP and ORAP prevented the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage model, suppressed hepatic malondialdehyde formation and stimulated the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Thus, we speculate that ORWP and ORAP may protect the liver from CCl4-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Benzofuran Derivatives from Cortex Mori Radicis, and Their Neuroprotective and Analgesic Activities Mediated by mGluR1
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 236; doi:10.3390/molecules22020236
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
Four new benzofuran-type stilbene glycosides and 14 known compounds including 8 benzofuran-type stilbenes and 6 flavonoids were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Mori Radicis. The new compounds were identified as (9R)-moracin P 3′-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1
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Four new benzofuran-type stilbene glycosides and 14 known compounds including 8 benzofuran-type stilbenes and 6 flavonoids were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Mori Radicis. The new compounds were identified as (9R)-moracin P 3′-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), (9R)-moracin P 9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (9R)-moracin P 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and (9R)-moracin O 10-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) based on the spectroscopic interpretation and chemical analysis. Three benzofuran-type stilbenes, moracin O (5), R (7), and P (8) showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in SK-N-SH cells. In addition, moracin O (5) and P (8) also demonstrated a remarkable inhibition of the acetic acid-induced pain. The molecular docking with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) results indicated that these neuroprotective benzofuran-type stilbenes might be the active analgesic components of the genus Morus, and acted by mediating the mGluR1 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle New Route Synthesis of Thiadiazoles, Bisthiadiazoles, Thiadiazolotriazines, and Pyrazolothiadiazoles Based on Hydrazonoyl Halides and Dihydrazinylthiadiazole
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 336; doi:10.3390/molecules22020336
Received: 1 January 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract
Synthesis and characterization of new thiadiazoles, bisthiadiazoles from the reaction of mono- and di-hydrazonoyl halides with various hydrazinecarbodithioate derivatives were studied. Treatment of hydrazonoyl halides with 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole afforded new bistriazines containing thiadiazole; we also examined the reaction of 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole with active methylene compounds
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Synthesis and characterization of new thiadiazoles, bisthiadiazoles from the reaction of mono- and di-hydrazonoyl halides with various hydrazinecarbodithioate derivatives were studied. Treatment of hydrazonoyl halides with 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole afforded new bistriazines containing thiadiazole; we also examined the reaction of 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole with active methylene compounds to afford new pyrazoles containing thiadiazole compounds. The new synthesized compounds were identified by elemental analysis and various spectral data (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur-Nitrogen Heteroaromatics)
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Open AccessArticle Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 237; doi:10.3390/molecules22020237
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 5 February 2017
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Abstract
Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a “buried treasure medicine”, is priced higher than
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Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a “buried treasure medicine”, is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups (n = 8 per group), and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%). CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time, decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (CK, p = 0.0002), and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.0001), and economized glucose levels (p < 0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly increased with CMG extract treatment. Biochemical profile results showed that creatinine and triacylglycerol significantly decreased and total protein and glucose increased with CMG treatment. This is the first report that CMG extract supplementation increases muscle mass, improves exercise performance and energy utilization, and decreases fatigue-associated parameters in vivo. The major component of CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro, which could be a potential bioactive compound for use as an ergogenic aid ingredient by the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Photocatalytic Rotating Disc Reactor with TiO2 Nanowire Arrays Deposited for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 337; doi:10.3390/molecules22020337
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
A photocatalytic rotating disc reactor (PRD-reactor) with TiO2 nanowire arrays deposited on a thin Ti plate is fabricated and tested for industrial wastewater treatment. Results indicate that the PRD-reactor shows excellent decolorization capability when tested with methyl orange (>97.5%). Advanced oxidation processes
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A photocatalytic rotating disc reactor (PRD-reactor) with TiO2 nanowire arrays deposited on a thin Ti plate is fabricated and tested for industrial wastewater treatment. Results indicate that the PRD-reactor shows excellent decolorization capability when tested with methyl orange (>97.5%). Advanced oxidation processes (AOP), including photocatalytic oxidation and photolytic reaction, occurred during the processing. Efficiency of the AOP increases with reduction in light absorption pathlength, which enhanced the photocatalytic reaction, as well as by increasing oxygen exposure of the wastewater thin film due to the rotating disc design. It is found that, with a small dosage of hydrogen peroxide, the mineralization efficiency of industrial biodegraded wastewater can be enhanced, with a superior mineralization of >75% total organic carbon (TOC) removal. This is due to the fact that the TiO2 photocatalysis and hydrogen peroxide processes generate powerful oxidants (hydroxyl radicals) that can strongly improve photocatalytic oxidation efficiency. Application of this industrial wastewater treatment system is benefited from the TiO2 nanowire arrays, which can be fabricated by a mild solvothermal method at 80 °C and under atmospheric pressure. Similar morphologies and microstructures are found for the TiO2 nanowire arrays deposited on a large metal Ti disc, which makes the wastewater treatment process more practical and economical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Reusable Silica Nanosphere-Supported Pt(IV) Complex for Formation of Disulfide Bonds in Peptides
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 338; doi:10.3390/molecules22020338
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Some peptide-based drugs, including oxytocin, vasopressin, ziconotide, pramlintide, nesiritide, and octreotide, contain one intramolecular disulfide bond. A novel and reusable monodispersed silica nanosphere-supported Pt(IV) complex (SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV)); TPEA: N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine) was synthesized via a four-step procedure and was used for the formation
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Some peptide-based drugs, including oxytocin, vasopressin, ziconotide, pramlintide, nesiritide, and octreotide, contain one intramolecular disulfide bond. A novel and reusable monodispersed silica nanosphere-supported Pt(IV) complex (SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV)); TPEA: N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine) was synthesized via a four-step procedure and was used for the formation of intramolecular disulfide bonds in peptides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and chemical mapping results for the Pt(II) intermediates and for SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV) show that the silica nanospheres possess a monodisperse spherical structure and contain uniformly-distributed Si, O, C, N, Cl, and Pt. The valence state of Pt on the silica nanospheres was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Pt(IV) loaded on SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV) was 0.15 mmol/g, as determined by UV-VIS spectrometry. The formation of intramolecular disulfides in six dithiol-containing peptides of variable lengths by the use of SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV) was investigated, and the relative oxidation yields were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, peptide 1 (Ac-CPFC-NH2) was utilized to study the reusability of SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV). No significant decrease in the relative oxidation yield was observed after ten reaction cycles. Moreover, the structure of SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV) after being used for ten cycles was determined to be similar to its initial one, demonstrating the cycling stability of the complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antitumor Activities of Chiral Dipeptide Thioureas Containing an Alpha-Aminophosphonate Moiety
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 238; doi:10.3390/molecules22020238
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
Thiourea derivatives demonstrate potent cytotoxic activity against various leukemias and many tumor cell lines. In our previous study, the combination of thiourea and phosphonate has been proven as an effective strategy for developing antitumor agents. Herein, we synthesized and evaluated a series of
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Thiourea derivatives demonstrate potent cytotoxic activity against various leukemias and many tumor cell lines. In our previous study, the combination of thiourea and phosphonate has been proven as an effective strategy for developing antitumor agents. Herein, we synthesized and evaluated a series of novel chiral dipeptide thioureas containing an α-aminophosphonate moiety as antitumor agents. Finally, we developed novel dipeptide thioureas 11d and 11f that showed comparable inhibition with that of Cisplatin against BGC-823 and A-549 cells, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immobilization of Lipase from Penicillium sp. Section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583) on Different Hydrophobic Supports: Modulation of Functional Properties
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 339; doi:10.3390/molecules22020339
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lipases are promising enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol ester bonds at the oil/water interface. Apart from allowing biocatalyst reuse, immobilization can also affect enzyme structure consequently influencing its activity, selectivity, and stability. The lipase from Penicillium sp. section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583)
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Lipases are promising enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol ester bonds at the oil/water interface. Apart from allowing biocatalyst reuse, immobilization can also affect enzyme structure consequently influencing its activity, selectivity, and stability. The lipase from Penicillium sp. section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583) was successfully immobilized on supports bearing butyl, phenyl, octyl, octadecyl, and divinylbenzyl hydrophobic moieties wherein lipases were adsorbed through the highly hydrophobic opened active site. The highest activity in aqueous medium was observed for the enzyme adsorbed on octyl support, with a 150% hyperactivation regarding the soluble enzyme activity, and the highest adsorption strength was verified with the most hydrophobic support (octadecyl Sepabeads), requiring 5% Triton X-100 to desorb the enzyme from the support. Most of the derivatives presented improved properties such as higher stability to pH, temperature, and organic solvents than the covalently immobilized CNBr derivative (prepared under very mild experimental conditions and thus a reference mimicking free-enzyme behavior). A 30.8- and 46.3-fold thermostabilization was achieved in aqueous medium, respectively, by the octyl Sepharose and Toyopearl butyl derivatives at 60 °C, in relation to the CNBr derivative. The octyl- and phenyl-agarose derivatives retained 50% activity after four and seven cycles of p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolysis, respectively. Different derivatives exhibited different properties regarding their properties for fish oil hydrolysis in aqueous medium and ethanolysis in anhydrous medium. The most active derivative in ethanolysis of fish oil was the enzyme adsorbed on a surface covered by divinylbenzyl moieties and it was 50-fold more active than the enzyme adsorbed on octadecyl support. Despite having identical mechanisms of immobilization, different hydrophobic supports seem to promote different shapes of the adsorbed open active site of the lipase and hence different functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization 2016)
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Open AccessArticle On-Line Screening, Isolation and Identification of Antioxidant Compounds of Helianthemum ruficomum
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 239; doi:10.3390/molecules22020239
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
Many Helianthemum species (Cistaceae) are recognized for their various medicinal virtues. Helianthemum ruficomum is an endemic species to the septentrional Sahara on which no report is available so far. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical composition and the radical
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Many Helianthemum species (Cistaceae) are recognized for their various medicinal virtues. Helianthemum ruficomum is an endemic species to the septentrional Sahara on which no report is available so far. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical composition and the radical scavenging capacity of this species and its isolated components. Collected from Mougheul (south-west of Algeria), the aerial parts were macerated with 80% EtOH/H2O, after evaporation, the remaining extract was diluted with H2O and extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts were evaluated for their free radical scavenging capacity by on-line HPLC-ABTS•+ assay. The obtained data which were confirmed by TEAC and ORAC assays, allowed guiding the fractionation of these extracts by CC, TLC and reverse phase HPLC. Among the components, 14 were isolated and identified by spectroscopic analyses: protocatechuic acid (1), trans-tiliroside (2), cis-tiliroside (3), astragalin (4), picein (7), vanillic acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), lavandoside (9), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10), nicotiflorin (11), rutin (12), vicenin-2 (13), narcissin (14) and stigmasterol (5) and β-sitosterol (6) as a mixture (71% and 29%, respectively). Compounds 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 14 were new for the genus Helianthemum. The antioxidant power of all the isolated compounds was also evaluated by HPLC-ABTS•+, TEAC and ORAC assays. The results clearly indicated high antioxidant potential of the extracts and tested compounds of this species especially, compounds 1, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 12. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Altholactone Inhibits NF-κB and STAT3 Activation and Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 240; doi:10.3390/molecules22020240
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Altholactone, a natural compound isolated from Goniothalamus spp., has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully defined. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play pivotal roles in the cell
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Altholactone, a natural compound isolated from Goniothalamus spp., has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully defined. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play pivotal roles in the cell survival of many human tumors. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of altholactone against prostate cancer DU145 cells and to evaluate whether its effects are mediated by inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activity. Altholactone inhibited proliferation of DU145 cells and induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and triggered apoptosis. Reporter assays revealed that altholactone repressed p65- and TNF-α-enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity and also inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced transcriptional activity of STAT3. Consistent with this, altholactone down-regulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and moreover, decreased constitutively active mutant of STAT3 (STAT3C)-induced transcriptional activity. Altholactone treatment also results in down-regulation of STAT3 target genes such as survivin, and Bcl-2 followed by up regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. However, pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited the activation of Bax and prevented down-regulation of STAT3 target genes. Collectively, our findings suggest that altholactone induces DU145 cells death through inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Anion Shape on the Electrical Double Layer Microstructure and Capacitance of Ionic Liquids-Based Supercapacitors by Molecular Simulations
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 241; doi:10.3390/molecules22020241
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf2N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium
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Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf2N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes. Nevertheless, the employment of the one-electrode model without tuning the bulk density of RTILs is more time-saving in contrast to the two-electrode one. With the one-electrode model, our simulation demonstrated that the shapes of anions significantly imposed effects on the microstructure of EDLs. The EDL differential capacitance vs. potential (C-V) curves of [Emim][CNPyr] electrolyte exhibit higher differential capacitance at positive potentials. The modeling study provides microscopic insight into the EDLs structure of RTILs with different anion shapes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP) Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 341; doi:10.3390/molecules22020341
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP) is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum), which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we
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Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP) is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum), which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Naphthalimide Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 342; doi:10.3390/molecules22020342
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Two kinds of naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro their anti-hepatocellular carcinoma properties. Compound 3a with a fused thiazole fragment to naphthalimide skeleton inhibited cell migration of SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and further in vivo trials with two animal models confirmed
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Two kinds of naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro their anti-hepatocellular carcinoma properties. Compound 3a with a fused thiazole fragment to naphthalimide skeleton inhibited cell migration of SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and further in vivo trials with two animal models confirmed that compound 3a moderately inhibited primary H22 tumor growth (52.6%) and potently interrupted lung metastasis (75.7%) without obvious systemic toxicity at the therapeutic dose. Mechanistic research revealed that compound 3a inhibited cancerous liver cell growth mostly by inducing G2/M phase arrest. Western blotting experiments corroborated that 3a could up-regulate the cell cycle related protein expression of cyclin B1, CDK1 and p21, and inhibit cell migration by elevating the E-cadherin and attenuating integrin α6 expression. Our study showed that compound 3a is a valuable lead compound worthy of further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cearoin Induces Autophagy, ERK Activation and Apoptosis via ROS Generation in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 242; doi:10.3390/molecules22020242
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
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Abstract
Neuroblastomas are the most common solid extracranial tumors in childhood. We investigated the anticancer effect of cearoin isolated from Dalbergia odorifera in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with various doses of cearoin. The viability was measured by MTT assay. DCFDA
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Neuroblastomas are the most common solid extracranial tumors in childhood. We investigated the anticancer effect of cearoin isolated from Dalbergia odorifera in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with various doses of cearoin. The viability was measured by MTT assay. DCFDA fluorescence assay and Griess assay were used for the measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to clarify the molecular pathway involved. Cearoin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Cearoin increased the phosporylation of ERK, the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, decrease in Bcl2 expression, the activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP, indicating the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, cearoin treatment increased the production of ROS and NO. Co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine completely abolished cearoin-mediated autophagy, ERK activation and apoptosis, suggesting the critical role of ROS in cearoin-induced anticancer effects. Moreover, co-treatment with ERK inhibitor PD98059 partially reversed cearoin-induced cell death, indicating the involvement of ERK in cearoin anticancer effects. These data reveal that cearoin induces autophagy, ERK activation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which is mediated primarily by ROS generation, suggesting its therapeutic application for the treatment of neuroblastomas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Conformational Properties of d-Glucose/d-Galactose-Binding Protein in Crowded Milieu
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 244; doi:10.3390/molecules22020244
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 29 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
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Abstract
Conformational changes of d-glucose/d-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) were studied under molecular crowding conditions modeled by concentrated solutions of polyethylene glycols (PEG-12000, PEG-4000, and PEG-600), Ficoll-70, and Dextran-70, addition of which induced noticeable structural changes in the GGBP molecule. All PEGs promoted
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Conformational changes of d-glucose/d-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) were studied under molecular crowding conditions modeled by concentrated solutions of polyethylene glycols (PEG-12000, PEG-4000, and PEG-600), Ficoll-70, and Dextran-70, addition of which induced noticeable structural changes in the GGBP molecule. All PEGs promoted compaction of GGBP and lead to the increase in ordering of its structure. Concentrated solutions of PEG-12000 and PEG-4000 caused GGBP aggregation. Although Ficoll-70 and Dextran-70 also promoted increase in the GGBP ordering, the structural outputs were different for different crowders. For example, in comparison with the GGBP in buffer, the intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of this protein was shifted to short-wave region in the presence of PEGs but was red-shifted in the presence of Ficoll-70 and Dextran-70. It was hypothesized that this difference could be due to the specific interaction of GGBP with the sugar-based polymers (Ficoll-70 and Dextran-70), indicating that protein can adopt different conformations in solutions containing molecular crowders of different chemical nature. It was also shown that all tested crowding agents were able to stabilize GGBP structure shifting the GGBP guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding curves to higher denaturant concentrations, but their stabilization capabilities did not depend on the hydrodynamic dimensions of the polymers molecules. Refolding of GGBP was complicated by protein aggregation in all tested solutions of crowding agents. The lowest yield of refolded protein was achieved in the highly concentrated solutions of PEG-12000. These data support the previous notion that the influence of macromolecular crowders on proteins is rather complex phenomenon that extends beyond the excluded volume effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Conformers of Quinine and Quinidine: An HF, MP2 and DFT Study
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 245; doi:10.3390/molecules22020245
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Quinine is an alkaloid with powerful antimalarial activity, isolated from the bark of Peru’s cinchona trees. Quinidine is an erythro diastereoisomer of quinine also exhibiting antimalarial activity. Conformational studies performed so far had never identified conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHB). The current
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Quinine is an alkaloid with powerful antimalarial activity, isolated from the bark of Peru’s cinchona trees. Quinidine is an erythro diastereoisomer of quinine also exhibiting antimalarial activity. Conformational studies performed so far had never identified conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHB). The current study shows the possibility of conformers with an IHB between the quinuclidine and quinoline moieties of these molecules. The study was performed at different levels of theory: Hartree Fock (HF) with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional and the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set and Møller–Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2) with the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set, to confirm the results. The results suggest that the stabilising effect of this IHB is weaker or comparable with respect to the stabilising effect of the preferred mutual orientation of the two moieties. Although the IHB-containing conformers may not be the lowest energy ones, their relative energy is sufficiently low for them to be included among the possible ones responsible for the compounds’ antimalarial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding 2017)
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Open AccessCommunication Poloxamer-Based Thermoreversible Gel for Topical Delivery of Emodin: Influence of P407 and P188 on Solubility of Emodin and Its Application in Cellular Activity Screening
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 246; doi:10.3390/molecules22020246
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Emodin is a component in a Chinese herb, Rheum officinale Baill, traditionally used for diabetes and anticancer. Its poor solubility is one of the major challenges to pharmaceutical scientists. We previously reported on thermoreversible gel formulations based on poloxamer for the topical delivery
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Emodin is a component in a Chinese herb, Rheum officinale Baill, traditionally used for diabetes and anticancer. Its poor solubility is one of the major challenges to pharmaceutical scientists. We previously reported on thermoreversible gel formulations based on poloxamer for the topical delivery of emodin. The present study was to understand the effect of poloxamer type on emodin solubility and its application in cellular activity screening. Various gel formulations composed of poloxamer 407 (P407), poloxamer 188 (P188) and PEG400 were prepared and evaluated. Major evaluation parameters were the gelation temperature (Tgel) and solubility of emodin. The emodin solubility increased with increasing poloxamer concentration and the Tgel was modulated by the proper combination of P407. In particular, this study showed that the amount of P407 in thermoreversible poloxamer gel (PG) was the dominant factor in enhancing solubility and P188 was effective at fixing gelation temperature in the desired range. A thermoreversible emodin PG was selected as the proper composition with the liquid state at room temperature and gel state at body temperature. The gel showed the solubility enhancement of emodin at least 100-fold compared to 10% ethanol or water. The thermoreversible formulation was applied for in vitro cellular activity screening in the human dermal fibroblast cell line and DLD-1 colon cancer cell line after dilution with cell culture media. The thermoreversible gel formulation remained as a clear solution in the microplate, which allowed reliable cellular activity screening. In contrast, emodin solution in ethanol or DMSO showed precipitation at the corresponding emodin concentration, complicating data interpretation. In conclusion, the gel formulation is proposed as a useful prototype topical formulation for testing emodin in vivo as well as in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid Composition and Antitumor Activity of Bee Bread Collected in Northeast Portugal
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 248; doi:10.3390/molecules22020248
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Bee bread (BB) is a fermented mixture of plant pollen, honey, and bee saliva that worker bees use as food for larvae, and for young bees to produce royal jelly. In the present study, five BB samples, collected from Apis mellifera iberiensis hives
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Bee bread (BB) is a fermented mixture of plant pollen, honey, and bee saliva that worker bees use as food for larvae, and for young bees to produce royal jelly. In the present study, five BB samples, collected from Apis mellifera iberiensis hives located in different apiaries near Bragança, in the northeast region of Portugal, and one BB commercial sample were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) in terms of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoid glycoside derivatives. Furthermore, the samples were screened, using in vitro assays, against different human tumor cell lines, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), and also against non-tumor liver cells (porcine liver cells, PLP2). The main phenolic compounds found were flavonol derivatives, mainly quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, isorhamnetin and herbacetrin glycoside derivatives. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the six BB samples, presenting BB1 and BB3 with the highest contents (6802 and 6480 µg/g extract, respectively) and the highest number of identified compounds. Two isorhamnetin glycoside derivatives, isrohamnetin-O-hexosyl-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-O-pentosyl-hexoside, were the most abundant compounds present in BB1; on the other hand, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was the most abundant flavonol in BB3. However, it was not possible to establish a correlation between the flavonoids and the observed low to moderate cytotoxicity (ranging from >400 to 68 µg/mL), in which HeLa and NCI-H460 cell lines were the most susceptible to the inhibition. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report characterizing glycosidic flavonoids in BB samples, contributing to the chemical knowledge of this less explored bee product. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Complete Chloroplast Genome of Medicinal Plant Lonicera japonica: Genome Rearrangement, Intron Gain and Loss, and Implications for Phylogenetic Studies
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 249; doi:10.3390/molecules22020249
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 29 January 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Lonicera japonica, a common ornamental and medicinal plant in North America and East Asia, was sequenced and analyzed. The length of the L. japonica cp genome is 155,078 bp, contains a pair of inverted repeat regions
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The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Lonicera japonica, a common ornamental and medicinal plant in North America and East Asia, was sequenced and analyzed. The length of the L. japonica cp genome is 155,078 bp, contains a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), of 23,774 bp each, as well as large (LSC, 88,858 bp) and small (SSC, 18,672 bp) single-copy regions. A total of 129 genes were identified in the cp genome, 16 of which were duplicated within the IR regions. Relative to other plant cp genomes, the L. japonica cp genome had a unique rearrangement between trnI-CAU and trnN-GUU. In L. japonica cpDNA, rps19, rpl2, and rpl23 move to the LSC region, from the IR region. The ycf1 pesudogene in the IR region is lost, and only one copy locates in the SSC region. Comparative cp DNA sequence analyses of L. japonica with other cp genomes reveal that the gene order, and the gene and intron contents, are slightly different. The introns in ycf2 and rps18 genes are found for the first time. Four genes (clpP, petB, petD, and rpl16) lost introns. However, its genome structure, GC content, and codon usage were similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes. All preferred synonymous codons were found to use codons ending with A/T. The AT-rich sequences were less abundant in the coding regions than in the non-coding ones. A phylogenetic analysis based on 71 protein-coding genes supported the idea that L. japonica is a sister of the Araliaceae species. This study identified unique characteristics of the L. japonica cp genome that contribute to our understanding of the cpDNA evolution. It offers valuable information for the phylogenetic and specific barcoding of this medicinal plant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Zunyimycins B and C, New Chloroanthrabenzoxocinones Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci from Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 251; doi:10.3390/molecules22020251
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 5 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
This study performed an optimization of the fermentation conditions to activate the expression of the zunyimycin family biosynthesis genes of the zunyimycin-producing streptomycetes strain Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification by varied chromatographic methods yielded two new compounds of the zunyimycin derivatives,
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This study performed an optimization of the fermentation conditions to activate the expression of the zunyimycin family biosynthesis genes of the zunyimycin-producing streptomycetes strain Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification by varied chromatographic methods yielded two new compounds of the zunyimycin derivatives, namely, 31-2-7 and 31-2-8, accompanied with three known anthrabenzoxocinones family members of zunyimycin A, BE24566B, and chloroanthrabenzoxocinone. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, HRESIMS, IR, UV, and CD. Results showed that these two compounds were structurally similar to the previously reported compound zunyimycin A but differed in positions and number of chlorine atom substitution. The two novel compounds were called zunyimycins B and C. Antibacterial activity assay indicated that zunyimycin C showed a good inhibitory effect on the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Thermo-Responsive and Cross-Linked Fluorinated Nanoparticles via RAFT-Mediated Aqueous Polymerization in Nanoreactors
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 152; doi:10.3390/molecules22020152
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
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Abstract
In this work, a thermo-responsive and cross-linked fluoropolymer poly(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) methacrylate (PTFEMA) was successfully prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated aqueous polymerization with a thermo-responsive diblock poly(dimethylacrylamide-b-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA-b-PNIPAM) that performed a dual function as both a
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In this work, a thermo-responsive and cross-linked fluoropolymer poly(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) methacrylate (PTFEMA) was successfully prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated aqueous polymerization with a thermo-responsive diblock poly(dimethylacrylamide-b-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA-b-PNIPAM) that performed a dual function as both a nanoreactor and macro-RAFT agent. The cross-linked polymer particles proved to be in a spherical-like structure of about 50 nm in diameter and with a relatively narrow particle size distribution. 1H-NMR and 19F-NMR spectra showed that thermo-responsive diblock P(DMA-b-NIPAM) and cross-linked PTFEMA particles were successfully synthesized. Influence of the amount of ammonium persulfate (APS), the molar ratio of monomers to RAFT agent, influence of the amount of cross-linker on aqueous polymerization and thermo-responsive characterization of the particles are investigated. Monomer conversion increased from 44% to 94% with increasing the molar ratio of APS and P(DMA-b-NIPAM) from 1:9 to1:3. As the reaction proceeded, the particle size increased from 29 to 49 nm due to the consumption of TFEMA monomer. The size of cross-linked nanoparticles sharply decreased from 50.3 to 40.5 nm over the temperature range 14–44 °C, suggesting good temperature sensitivity for these nanoparticles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Doxorubicin Conjugated to Glutathione Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) as an Effective Therapeutic Agent for Feline Injection-Site Sarcomas—Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Study
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 253; doi:10.3390/molecules22020253
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumours with a high local recurrence rate, ranging from 14% to 28%. The treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas includes radical surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In our previous study it has been demonstrated that doxorubicin conjugated to glutathione-stabilized
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Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumours with a high local recurrence rate, ranging from 14% to 28%. The treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas includes radical surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In our previous study it has been demonstrated that doxorubicin conjugated to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) has higher cytotoxic effects than free doxorubicin for feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with high glycoprotein P activity (FFS1, FFS3). The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox on the growth of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. This model has been utilized both in human and veterinary medicine for preclinical oncological studies. The influence of intratumoural injections of Au-GSH-Dox, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles and doxorubicin alone on the Ki-67 proliferation marker was also checked. We demonstrated that the volume ratio of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after a single intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox, which confirms the positive results of in vitro studies and indicates that Au-GSH-Dox may be a potent new therapeutic agent for feline injection-site sarcomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Based Drugs: Opportunities and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide and Its Neodymium(III) and Thallium(III) Complexes
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 153; doi:10.3390/molecules22020153
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (NBTCS) was synthesized by condensation reaction of 4-chlorobenzenesulphonyl chloride and 2-aminobenzothiazole in acetone under reflux. Neodymium(III) and thallium(III) complexes of the ligand were also synthesized. Both ligand and metal complexes were characterized using UV-Vis, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies,
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N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (NBTCS) was synthesized by condensation reaction of 4-chlorobenzenesulphonyl chloride and 2-aminobenzothiazole in acetone under reflux. Neodymium(III) and thallium(III) complexes of the ligand were also synthesized. Both ligand and metal complexes were characterized using UV-Vis, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies, elemental analysis and molar conductance measurement. IR studies revealed that the ligand is tridentate and coordinates to the metal ions through nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the sulphonamide group and nitrogen atom attached to benzothiazole ring. The neodymium(III) complex displays a coordination number of eight while thallium(III) complex displays a coordination number of six. The ligand and its complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli strains (E. coli 6 and E. coli 13), Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar well diffusion technique. The synthesized compounds were found to be more active against the microorganisms screened relative to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur-Nitrogen Heteroaromatics)
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Open AccessCommunication Reaction of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole with Diethyl Phosphite and Triethyl Orthoformate: Acid-Base Properties and Antiosteoporotic Activities of the Products
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 254; doi:10.3390/molecules22020254
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
The reaction of diethyl phosphite with triethyl orthoformate and a primary amine followed by hydrolysis is presented, and the reaction was suitable for the preparation of (aminomethylene)bisphosphonates. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole was chosen as an interesting substrate for this reaction because it possesses multiple groups that
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The reaction of diethyl phosphite with triethyl orthoformate and a primary amine followed by hydrolysis is presented, and the reaction was suitable for the preparation of (aminomethylene)bisphosphonates. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole was chosen as an interesting substrate for this reaction because it possesses multiple groups that can serve as the amino component in the reaction—namely, the side-chain and triazole amines. This substrate readily forms 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-yl-aminomethylenebisphosphonic acid (compound 1) as a major product, along with N-ethylated bisphosphonates as side products. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of the synthesized aminomethylenebisphosphonic acids against J774E macrophages were determined. These compounds exhibit similar activity to zoledronic acid and higher activity than incadronic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multicomponent Reaction-Based Synthesis of Bioactive Molecules)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Administration of the Japanese Traditional Medicine Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Rat Plasma: Identification of Chemical Constituents Contributing to Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 256; doi:10.3390/molecules22020256
Received: 17 January 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
Insufficient detoxification and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cellular and tissue damage, and generated reactive oxygen metabolites become exacerbating factors of dermatitis. Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin (KBGY) is a traditional Japanese medicine prescribed to treat dermatitis such as acne vulgaris. Our aim was to
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Insufficient detoxification and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cellular and tissue damage, and generated reactive oxygen metabolites become exacerbating factors of dermatitis. Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin (KBGY) is a traditional Japanese medicine prescribed to treat dermatitis such as acne vulgaris. Our aim was to verify the antioxidant properties of KBGY, and identify its active constituents by blood pharmacokinetic techniques. Chemical constituents were quantified in extracts of KBGY, crude components, and the plasma of rats treated with a single oral administration of KBGY. Twenty-three KBGY compounds were detected in plasma, including gallic acid, prunasin, paeoniflorin, and azelaic acid, which have been reported to be effective for inflammation. KBGY decreased level of the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) in plasma. ROS-scavenging and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) generation assays revealed that gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, (+)-catechin, and lariciresinol possess strong antioxidant activities. Gallic acid was active at a similar concentration to the maximum plasma concentration, therefore, our findings indicate that gallic acid is an important active constituent contributing to the antioxidant effects of KBGY. KBGY and its active constituents may improve redox imbalances induced by oxidative stress as an optional treatment for skin diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of “Constrained Geometry” Titanium Complexes of [1,2]Azasilinane Framework for Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymerization
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 258; doi:10.3390/molecules22020258
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
The Me2Si-bridged ansa-Cp/amido half-metallocene, [Me2Si(η5-Me4C5)(NtBu)]TiCl2, termed a “constrained-geometry catalyst (CGC)”, is a representative homogeneous Ziegler catalyst. CGC derivatives with the [1,2]azasilinane framework, in which the amide alkyl substituent
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The Me2Si-bridged ansa-Cp/amido half-metallocene, [Me2Si(η5-Me4C5)(NtBu)]TiCl2, termed a “constrained-geometry catalyst (CGC)”, is a representative homogeneous Ziegler catalyst. CGC derivatives with the [1,2]azasilinane framework, in which the amide alkyl substituent is joined by the Si-bridge, were prepared, and the catalytic performances of these species was studied. Me4C5HSi(Me)(CH2CH=CH2)-NH(C(R)(R’)CH=CH2) (R, R’ = H or methyl; Me4C5H = tetramethylcyclopentadienyl) was susceptible to ring closure metathesis (RCM) when treated with Schrock’s Mo-catalyst to afford -Si(Me4C5H)(Me)CH2CH=CHC(R)(R’)NH- containing a six-membered ring framework. Using the precursors and the products of RCM, various CGC derivatives, i.e., [-Si(η5-Me4C5)(Me)CH2CH=CHC(R)(H)N-]TiMe2 (13, R = H; 15, R = Me), [-Si(η5-Me4C5)(Me)CH2CH2CH2CH2N]TiMe2 (14), [(η5-Me4C5)Si(Me)(CH2CH=CH2)NCH2CH=CH2]TiMe2 (16), [(η5-Me4C5)Si (Me)(CH=CH2)NCH2CH=CH2]TiMe2 (17), and [(η5-Me4C5)Si(Me)(CH2CH3)NCH2CH2CH3]TiMe2 (18), were prepared. The catalytic activity of the newly prepared complexes was lower than that of CGC when activated with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]/iBu3Al. However, the catalytic activity of these species was improved by using tetrabutylaluminoxane ([iBu2Al]2O) instead of iBu3Al and the activity of 14/[Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]/[iBu2Al]2O was comparable to that of CGC/[Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]/iBu3Al (4.7 and 5.0 × 106 g/mol-Ti, respectively). Advantageously, the newly prepared complexes produced higher molecular weight poly(ethylene-co-1-octene)s than CGC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Catalysis for Olefin Polymerization/Oligomerization)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Potential of Novel 2-(2-((1H-indol-5yl)methylene)-hydrazinyl)-thiazole Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 260; doi:10.3390/molecules22020260
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
Newly synthesized 2-(2-((1H-indol-5yl)methylene)-hydrazinyl)-thiazole derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on two carcinoma cell lines A2780 and HeLa. Significant cytotoxic activity for 2-(2-((1H-indol-5-yl)methylene)hydrazinyl)-4-methylthiazole (1) and 2-(2-((1H-indol-5-yl)methylene)hydrazinyl)-4-phenylthiazole (3), on both A2780 [IC50
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Newly synthesized 2-(2-((1H-indol-5yl)methylene)-hydrazinyl)-thiazole derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on two carcinoma cell lines A2780 and HeLa. Significant cytotoxic activity for 2-(2-((1H-indol-5-yl)methylene)hydrazinyl)-4-methylthiazole (1) and 2-(2-((1H-indol-5-yl)methylene)hydrazinyl)-4-phenylthiazole (3), on both A2780 [IC50: 11.6 μM (1), and 12.4 μM (3)] and HeLa [IC50: 22.4 μM (1) and 19.4μM (3)] cell lines is reported. Their antioxidant potential was evaluated by spectrophotometric method, using DPPH radical or Fe (TPTZ)3+ complex, and EPR spectroscopy, therefore the compounds 1 and 3 showed remarkable antioxidant activity simultaneously with a cytotoxic effect on A2780 and HeLa cell lines. Furthermore, based on theoretical quantum chemical calculation, the present study analyzed the chemoselectivity of the hydrogen extraction from the indolyl-hydrazinil-thiazoles in reaction with free radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle New Furan Derivatives from a Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Coriolopsis sp. J5
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 261; doi:10.3390/molecules22020261
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 5 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
Six new furan derivatives, named 5-(3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (1), 1-(5-(2-hydroxypropanoyl)-furan-2-yl)-pentan-3-one (2), 2-hydroxy-1-(5-(1-hydroxypentyl)-furan-2-yl)-propan-1-one (3), 1-(5-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-furan-2-yl)-pentan-1-one (4), 5-(1-hydroxypent-4-en-1-yl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (5) and 5-(3-hydroxypentyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (6), together with two new natural products, named 5-(1-hydroxypentyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (
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Six new furan derivatives, named 5-(3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (1), 1-(5-(2-hydroxypropanoyl)-furan-2-yl)-pentan-3-one (2), 2-hydroxy-1-(5-(1-hydroxypentyl)-furan-2-yl)-propan-1-one (3), 1-(5-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-furan-2-yl)-pentan-1-one (4), 5-(1-hydroxypent-4-en-1-yl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (5) and 5-(3-hydroxypentyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (6), together with two new natural products, named 5-(1-hydroxypentyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (7) and (E)-5-(2-carboxyvinyl)-furan-2-carboxylic acid (8), were isolated from the solid rice fermentation of endophytic fungus Coriolopsis sp. J5, which was derived from mangrove plant Ceriops tagal. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Weak Base Addition to Hole-Collecting Buffer Layers in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 262; doi:10.3390/molecules22020262
Received: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract
We report the effect of weak base addition to acidic polymer hole-collecting layers in normal-type polymer:fullerene solar cells. Varying amounts of the weak base aniline (AN) were added to solutions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The acidity of the aniline-added PEDOT:PSS solutions gradually decreased from
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We report the effect of weak base addition to acidic polymer hole-collecting layers in normal-type polymer:fullerene solar cells. Varying amounts of the weak base aniline (AN) were added to solutions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The acidity of the aniline-added PEDOT:PSS solutions gradually decreased from pH = 1.74 (AN = 0 mol% ) to pH = 4.24 (AN = 1.8 mol %). The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS-AN films did not change much with the pH value, while the ratio of conductivity between out-of-plane and in-plane directions was dependent on the pH of solutions. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) was obtained at pH = 2.52, even though all devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers exhibited better PCE than those with the pristine PEDOT:PSS layers. Atomic force microscopy investigation revealed that the size of PEDOT:PSS domains became smaller as the pH increased. The stability test for 100 h illumination under one sun condition disclosed that the PCE decay was relatively slower for the devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers than for those with pristine PEDOT:PSS layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Organic Nanophotonics)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antinociceptive Effects of the Essential Oils from Three Species of Mentha Cultivated in Romania
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 263; doi:10.3390/molecules22020263
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
This work was aimed at correlating the chemotype of three Mentha species cultivated in Romania with an in vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of essential oils. The selected species were Mentha piperita L. var. pallescens (white peppermint), Mentha spicata L.
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This work was aimed at correlating the chemotype of three Mentha species cultivated in Romania with an in vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of essential oils. The selected species were Mentha piperita L. var. pallescens (white peppermint), Mentha spicata L. subsp. crispata (spearmint), and Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (pineapple mint). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oils isolated from the selected Mentha species was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was determined by the rat paw edema test induced by λ-carrageenan. The antinociceptive effect of the essential oils was evaluated by the writhing test in mice, using 1% (v/v) acetic acid solution administered intraperitonealy and by the hot plate test in mice. The results showed a menthol chemotype for M. piperita pallescens, a carvone chemotype for M. spicata, and a piperitenone oxide chemotype for M. suaveolens. The essential oil from M. spicata L. (EOMSP) produced statistically significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Betulinic Acid-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Involves p53 and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathways
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 264; doi:10.3390/molecules22020264
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
Defects in p53 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways are frequently observed in the initiation and development of various human malignancies, including prostate cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate higher expression of NF-κB/p65/RelA, NF-κB/p50/RelB, and cRel as well as downregulation of the p53 network
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Defects in p53 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways are frequently observed in the initiation and development of various human malignancies, including prostate cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate higher expression of NF-κB/p65/RelA, NF-κB/p50/RelB, and cRel as well as downregulation of the p53 network in primary prostate cancer specimens and in metastatic tumors. Betulinic acid (BA), is a triterpenoid that has been reported to be an effective inducer of apoptosis through modification of several signaling pathways. Our objective was to investigate the pathways involved in BA-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. We employed the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells harboring wild-type p53, and androgen-refractory DU145 cells possessing mutated p53 with high constitutive NF-κB activity. Inhibition of cell survival by BA at 10 and 20 µM concentrations occurred as a result of alteration in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in both cell lines that led to an increased cytochrome C release, caspase activation and poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, leading to apoptosis. BA treatment resulted in stabilization of p53 through increase in phosphorylation at Ser15 in LNCaP cells, but not in DU145 cells, and induction of cyclin kinase inhibitor p21/Waf1 in both cell types. Furthermore, treatment of both prostate cancer cells with BA decreased the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)α and I-kappa-B-alpha (IκBα) inhibiting the nuclear location of NF-κB/p65 causing cytosolic accumulation and resulting in its decreased nuclear binding. We demonstrate that BA may induce apoptosis by stabilizing p53 and downregulating NF-κB pathway in human prostate cancer cells, irrespective of the androgen association, and therefore can potentially be developed as a molecule of interest in cancer chemoprevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 265; doi:10.3390/molecules22020265
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone) and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone), anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone), and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells). Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free
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Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone) and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone), anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone), and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells). Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L.), exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure-Activity Relationship of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Some New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, Thiazole and Pyridine Derivatives Containing 1,2,3-Triazole Moiety
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 268; doi:10.3390/molecules22020268
Received: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, 1-(5-Methyl-1-(p-tolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one, was reacted with Thiosemicarbazide, alkyl carbodithioate and benzaldehyde to give thiosemicarbazone, alkylidenehydrazinecarbodithioate and 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one-1,2,3-triazole derivatives. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives containing the 1,2,3-triazole moiety were obtained via reaction of alkylidenecarbodithioate with hydrazonoyl halides. Also, hydrazonoyl halides were reacted with thiosemicarbazone and
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In this study, 1-(5-Methyl-1-(p-tolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one, was reacted with Thiosemicarbazide, alkyl carbodithioate and benzaldehyde to give thiosemicarbazone, alkylidenehydrazinecarbodithioate and 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one-1,2,3-triazole derivatives. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives containing the 1,2,3-triazole moiety were obtained via reaction of alkylidenecarbodithioate with hydrazonoyl halides. Also, hydrazonoyl halides were reacted with thiosemicarbazone and pyrazolylthioamide to give 1,3-thiazoles derivatives. Subsequently, 3-phenyl2-en-1-one was used to synthesize substituted pyridines and substituted nicotinic acid ester. The latter was converted to its azide compound which was reacted with aromatic amines and phenol to give substituted urea and phenylcarbamate containing 1,2,3-triazole moiety. The newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis, spectral data and alternative synthesis whenever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 269; doi:10.3390/molecules22020269
Received: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has
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The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination and Optimization of Extraction Parameters of the α-Asarone Isolated from Perilla frutescens L.
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 270; doi:10.3390/molecules22020270
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design, was used to determine the best liquid-to-raw material ratio (10:3–15 mL/g), extraction time (1–3 h), and ethanol concentration (50%–100%) for maximum content of α-asarone from Perilla frutescens (PF) extract. Experimental values of α-asarone
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Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design, was used to determine the best liquid-to-raw material ratio (10:3–15 mL/g), extraction time (1–3 h), and ethanol concentration (50%–100%) for maximum content of α-asarone from Perilla frutescens (PF) extract. Experimental values of α-asarone were 9.51–46.36 mg/g; the results fitted a second-order quadratic polynomial model and correlated with the proposed model (R2 > 0.9354). The best conditions were obtained with extraction time of 1.76 h, liquid-to-raw material ratio of 10:13.5 mL/g, and ethanol concentration of 90.37%. Under these conditions, the model predicted extraction content of 40.56 mg/g, while experimental PF content of α-asarone was 43.84 mg/g dried plant. Optimized conditions determined for maximum content of α-asarone were similar to the experimental range. Experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus validating and indicating suitability of both the model and the RSM approach for optimizing extraction conditions. In addition, a reliable, reproducible and accurate method for the quantitative determination of α-asarone by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed with limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) values of 0.10 and 0.29 µg/mL and excellent linearity (R2 > 0.9999). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 271; doi:10.3390/molecules22020271
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
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Abstract
Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic
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Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw) reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively). The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw) did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Peptides As A Pipeline For Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus