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Molecules, Volume 21, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Open AccessReview Preventive Effects of Catechins on Cardiovascular Disease
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121759
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catechins are polyphenolic phytochemicals with many important physiological activities that play a multifaceted health care function in the human body, especially in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, various experimental and clinical studies have revealed the role of catechins in the
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Catechins are polyphenolic phytochemicals with many important physiological activities that play a multifaceted health care function in the human body, especially in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, various experimental and clinical studies have revealed the role of catechins in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders, and we review the preventive effects of catechins on cardiovascular disease from the following aspects: Regulating lipid metabolism, regulating blood lipid metabolism, vascular endothelial protection, and reducing blood pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catechins and Human Health: Current State of the Science)
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Open AccessArticle Cryptolepine, a Plant Alkaloid, Inhibits the Growth of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Cells through Inhibition of Topoisomerase and Induction of DNA Damage
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121758
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Topoisomerases have been shown to have roles in cancer progression. Here, we have examined the effect of cryptolepine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of human non-melanoma skin cancer cells (NMSCC) and underlying mechanism of action. For this purpose SCC-13 and A431 cell
[...] Read more.
Topoisomerases have been shown to have roles in cancer progression. Here, we have examined the effect of cryptolepine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of human non-melanoma skin cancer cells (NMSCC) and underlying mechanism of action. For this purpose SCC-13 and A431 cell lines were used as an in vitro model. Our study reveals that SCC-13 and A431 cells express higher levels as well as activity of topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II) compared with normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Treatment of NMSCC with cryptolepine (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM) for 24 h resulted in marked decrease in topoisomerase activity, which was associated with substantial DNA damage as detected by the comet assay. Cryptolepine induced DNA damage resulted in: (i) an increase in the phosphorylation of ATM/ATR, BRCA1, Chk1/Chk2 and γH2AX; (ii) activation of p53 signaling cascade, including enhanced protein expressions of p16 and p21; (iii) downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases, cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E and proteins involved in cell division (e.g., Cdc25a and Cdc25b) leading to cell cycle arrest at S-phase; and (iv) mitochondrial membrane potential was disrupted and cytochrome c released. These changes in NMSCC by cryptolepine resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and increase in apoptotic cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacological Properties of Riparin IV in Models of Pain and Inflammation
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121757
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Riparins, natural alkaloids of the alkamide group, can be synthesized by simple methods, enhancing their potential application in pharmaceutical development. Here, the pharmacological properties of riparins were investigated in in vitro and in vivo assays of pain and inflammation in Swiss mice. Inflammatory
[...] Read more.
Riparins, natural alkaloids of the alkamide group, can be synthesized by simple methods, enhancing their potential application in pharmaceutical development. Here, the pharmacological properties of riparins were investigated in in vitro and in vivo assays of pain and inflammation in Swiss mice. Inflammatory mediators were measured by radioimmunoassay and Real-Time PCR. Riparins I, II, III and IV (1.56–100 mg/kg; ip) produced dose-related antinociceptive effects in the formalin test, exhibiting ED50 values of 22.93, 114.2, 31.05 and 6.63 mg/kg, respectively. Taking the greater potency as steering parameter, riparin IV was further investigated. Riparin IV did not produce antinociceptive effect on the tail flick, suggesting that its antinociception is not a centrally-mediated action. In fact, riparin IV (1.56–25 mg/kg) produced dose-related antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects on the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced paw inflammation in mice. During CFA-induced inflammation, riparin IV did not modulate either the production of cytokines, TNF-α and IL-10, or COX-2 mRNA expression. On the other hand, riparin IV decreased the PGE2 levels in the inflamed paw. In in vitro assays, riparin IV did not exhibit suppressive activities in activated macrophages. These results indicate, for the first time, that riparin IV induces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, possibly through the inhibition of prostanoid production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product: A Continuing Source of Novel Drug Leads)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Hypoxia-Induced Retinal Angiogenesis by Specnuezhenide, an Effective Constituent of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., through Suppression of the HIF-1α/VEGF Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121756
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (7885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Specnuezhenide (SPN), one of the main ingredients of Chinese medicine “Nü-zhen-zi”, has anti-angiogenic and vision improvement effects. However, studies of its effect on retinal neovascularization are limited so far. In the present study, we established a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) secretion
[...] Read more.
Specnuezhenide (SPN), one of the main ingredients of Chinese medicine “Nü-zhen-zi”, has anti-angiogenic and vision improvement effects. However, studies of its effect on retinal neovascularization are limited so far. In the present study, we established a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) secretion model of human acute retinal pigment epithelial-19 (ARPE-19) cells by exposure of 150 μM CoCl2 to the cells and determined the VEGFA concentrations, the mRNA expressions of VEGFA, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) & prolyl hydroxylases 2 (PHD-2), and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 after treatment of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1, 1.0 μg/mL) or SPN (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/mL). Furthermore, rat pups with retinopathy were treated with SPN (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) in an 80% oxygen atmosphere and the retinal avascular areas were assessed through visualization using infusion of ADPase and H&E stains. The results showed that SPN inhibited VEGFA secretion by ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia condition, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of VEGFA and PHD-2 slightly, and the protein expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and PHD-2 significantly in vitro. SPN also prevented hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy in vivo. These results indicate that SPN ameliorates retinal neovascularization through inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. Therefore, SPN has the potential to be developed as an agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product: A Continuing Source of Novel Drug Leads)
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Open AccessArticle Polyphenol Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Seeds from Two Underexploited Wild Licania Species: L. rigida and L. tomentosa
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121755
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies have shown the benefit of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of human diseases and promoted a growing interest in new sources of plant antioxidants for pharmacological use. This study aimed to add value to two underexploited wild plant species (Licania
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Studies have shown the benefit of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of human diseases and promoted a growing interest in new sources of plant antioxidants for pharmacological use. This study aimed to add value to two underexploited wild plant species (Licania rigida) and L. tomentosa) from Brazilian flora. Thus, the phenolic compounds profile of their seed ethanol extract and derived fractions were elucidated by HPLC, the antioxidant capacity was assessed by in vitro chemical tests and the cytotoxicity determined using the human carcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and Caco-2. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts of each species. The extracts and fractions showed excellent antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (SC50, ranging from 9.15 to 248.8 µg/mL). The aqueous fraction of L. rigida seeds was most effective in preventing lipid peroxidation under basal conditions (IC50 60.80 µg/mL) whereas, in the presence of stress inducer, the methanolic fraction of L. tomentosa performed best (IC50 8.55 µg/mL). None of the samples showed iron chelating capacity. Ethanolic seed extracts of both species did not reveal any cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells. Both plant species showed a promising phenolic profile with potent antioxidant capacity and deserve attention to be sustainably explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Quantitative Analysis of Rosa rugosa by UPLC-DAD
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121754
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1648 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of five active compounds and chemical fingerprint analysis of Rosa rugosa. Ten batches of R. rugosa collected from different plantations in the Xinjiang
[...] Read more.
A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of five active compounds and chemical fingerprint analysis of Rosa rugosa. Ten batches of R. rugosa collected from different plantations in the Xinjiang region of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used UPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regression (R2 = 0.9995) within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 94.2%–103.8%. The similarities of liquid chromatography fingerprints of 10 batches of R. rugosa were more than 0.981. The developed UPLC fingerprint method is simple, reliable, and validated for the quality control and identification of R. rugosa. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive ingredients in the R. rugosa samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the UPLC fingerprint, as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis, can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of R. rugosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Sulfur Atom in its Bound State Is a Unique Element Involved in Physiological Functions in Mammals
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121753
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It was in the 1950s that the term polysulfide or persulfide was introduced in biological studies. The unfamiliar term “sulfane sulfur” sometimes appeared in papers published in the 1970s, and was defined in the review article by Westley in 1983. In the article,
[...] Read more.
It was in the 1950s that the term polysulfide or persulfide was introduced in biological studies. The unfamiliar term “sulfane sulfur” sometimes appeared in papers published in the 1970s, and was defined in the review article by Westley in 1983. In the article, sulfane sulfur is described as sulfur atoms that are covalently bound only with sulfur atoms, and as this explanation was somewhat difficult to comprehend, it was not generally accepted. Thus, in the early 1990s, we redefined these sulfur species as “bound sulfur”, which easily converts to hydrogen sulfide on reduction with a thiol reducing agent. In other words, bound sulfur refers to a sulfur atom that exists in a zero to divalent form (0 to −2). The first part of this review focuses on the fluorescent derivatization HPLC method—which we developed for measurement of bound sulfur—and explains the distribution of bound sulfur and the hydrogen sulfide-producing ability of various tissues, as clarified by this method. Next, we discuss diverse physiological functions and involvement of polysulfide, a typical type of bound sulfur, in the redox regulation system. Additionally, we also address its possible physiological role in the central nervous system, based on its action of scavenging reactive carbonyl compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment 2016)
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Open AccessEditorial Recent Advances in Olefin Metathesis
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121751
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Olefin metathesis is one of the most significant developments of the last 20 years in the fields of organic chemistry, polymers synthesis, and materials science [1–7]. [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olefin Metathesis)
Open AccessArticle New Iridoid Glucosides from Caryopteris incana (Thunb.) Miq. and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121749
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In our continued investigations of the plant Caryopteris incana, five new iridoid glucosides 15, including two cis-trans-isomers, 3 and 4, along with six known compounds 611, were isolated from the n-butyl alcohol (
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In our continued investigations of the plant Caryopteris incana, five new iridoid glucosides 15, including two cis-trans-isomers, 3 and 4, along with six known compounds 611, were isolated from the n-butyl alcohol (n-BuOH) soluble fraction of whole dried material of Caryopteris incana. Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS). Furthermore, all isolates were evaluated for their yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Among these compounds, 48 and 10 exhibited potent inhibition of α-glucosidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Hypervalent Iodine(III)-Induced Domino Oxidative Cyclization for the Synthesis of Cyclopenta[b]furans
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121713
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new strategy for cyclopenta[b]furan synthesis mediated by hypervalent iodine(III) has been described. The approach employs diacetoxyiodobenzene-induced initial dehydrogenation to a putative trienone intermediate and triggered sequential cycloisomerization to form the cyclo-penta[b]furan targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Weissella cibaria CMU and Probiotic Strains for Oral Care
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121752
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics have been demonstrated as a new paradigm to substitute antibiotic treatment for dental caries, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. The present work was conducted to compare the characteristics of oral care probiotics: Weissella cibaria CMU (Chonnam Medical University) and four commercial probiotic strains.
[...] Read more.
Probiotics have been demonstrated as a new paradigm to substitute antibiotic treatment for dental caries, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. The present work was conducted to compare the characteristics of oral care probiotics: Weissella cibaria CMU (Chonnam Medical University) and four commercial probiotic strains. Survival rates under poor oral conditions, acid production, hydrogen peroxide production, as well as inhibition of biofilm formation, coaggregation, antibacterial activity, and inhibition of volatile sulfur compounds were evaluated. The viability of W. cibaria CMU was not affected by treatment of 100 mg/L lysozyme for 90 min and 1 mM hydrogen peroxide for 6 h. Interestingly, W. cibaria produced less acid and more hydrogen peroxide than the other four probiotics. W. cibaria inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans at lower concentrations (S. mutans/CMU = 8) and efficiently coaggregated with Fusobacterium nucleatum. W. cibaria CMU and two commercial probiotics, including Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri, showed high antibacterial activities (>97%) against cariogens (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), and against periodontopathogens (F. nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis). All of the lactic acid bacterial strains in this study significantly reduced levels of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan produced by F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis (p < 0.05). These results suggest that W. cibaria CMU is applicable as an oral care probiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Materials and Coatings)
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Open AccessEditorial Natural Products in Anti-Obesity Therapy
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121750
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is regulated by genetic, endocrine, metabolic, neurological, pharmacological, environmental, and nutritional factors. [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products in Anti-Obesity Therapy)
Open AccessReview Cyclodextrins as Emerging Therapeutic Tools in the Treatment of Cholesterol-Associated Vascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121748
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases, like atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are closely linked to alterations of cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, innovative pharmacological approaches aiming at counteracting cholesterol imbalance display promising therapeutic potential. However, these approaches need to take into account the
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases, like atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are closely linked to alterations of cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, innovative pharmacological approaches aiming at counteracting cholesterol imbalance display promising therapeutic potential. However, these approaches need to take into account the existence of biological barriers such as intestinal and blood-brain barriers which participate in the organ homeostasis and are major defense systems against xenobiotics. Interest in cyclodextrins (CDs) as medicinal agents has increased continuously based on their ability to actively extract lipids from cell membranes and to provide suitable carrier system for drug delivery. Many novel CD derivatives are constantly generated with the objective to improve CD bioavailability, biocompatibility and therapeutic outcomes. Newly designed drug formulation complexes incorporating CDs as drug carriers have demonstrated better efficiency in treating cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. CD-based therapies as cholesterol-sequestrating agent have recently demonstrated promising advances with KLEPTOSE® CRYSMEB in atherosclerosis as well as with the 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) in clinical trials for Niemann-Pick type C disease. Based on this success, many investigations evaluating the therapeutical beneficial of CDs in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases are currently on-going. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclodextrin Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121747
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis,
[...] Read more.
Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Quercetin in a Rat Model of Hemorrhagic Traumatic Shock and Reperfusion
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121739
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: We hypothesized that treatment with quercetin could result in improved hemodynamics, lung inflammatory parameters and mortality in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Rats were anesthetized (80 mg/kg ketamine plus 8 mg/kg xylazine i.p.). The protocol included laparotomy for 15 min
[...] Read more.
Background: We hypothesized that treatment with quercetin could result in improved hemodynamics, lung inflammatory parameters and mortality in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Rats were anesthetized (80 mg/kg ketamine plus 8 mg/kg xylazine i.p.). The protocol included laparotomy for 15 min (trauma), hemorrhagic shock (blood withdrawal to reduce the mean arterial pressure to 35 mmHg) for 75 min and resuscitation by re-infusion of all the shed blood plus lactate Ringer for 90 min. Intravenous quercetin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered during resuscitation. Results: There was a trend for increased survival 84.6% (11/13) in the treated group vs. the shock group 68.4% (13/19, p > 0.05 Kaplan–Meier). Quercetin fully prevented the development of lung edema. The activity of aSMase was increased in the shock group compared to the sham group and the quercetin prevented this effect. However, other inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase activity, interleukin-6 in plasma or bronchoalveolar fluid were similar in the sham and shock groups. We found no bacterial DNA in plasma in these animals. Conclusions: Quercetin partially prevented the changes in blood pressure and lung injury in shock associated to hemorrhage and reperfusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids: From Structure to Health Issues)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Stimuli-Responsive Release Function Drug Delivery Systems for Tumor Treatment
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121715
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benefiting from the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems (DDSs) with stimuli-responsive controlled release function show great potential in clinical anti-tumor applications. By using a DDS, the harsh side effects of traditional anti-cancer drug treatments and damage to normal tissues and organs can
[...] Read more.
Benefiting from the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems (DDSs) with stimuli-responsive controlled release function show great potential in clinical anti-tumor applications. By using a DDS, the harsh side effects of traditional anti-cancer drug treatments and damage to normal tissues and organs can be avoided to the greatest extent. An ideal DDS must firstly meet bio-safety standards and secondarily the efficiency-related demands of a large drug payload and controlled release function. This review highlights recent research progress on DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. The first section briefly reviews the nanoscale scaffolds of DDSs, including mesoporous nanoparticles, polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), quantum dots (QDs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The second section presents the main types of stimuli-responsive mechanisms and classifies these into two categories: intrinsic (pH, redox state, biomolecules) and extrinsic (temperature, light irradiation, magnetic field and ultrasound) ones. Clinical applications of DDS, future challenges and perspectives are also mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Biomaterials in Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Targeting Cancer Stem Cells with Novel 4-(4-Substituted phenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy/3,4-dimethoxy)-benzoyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one/thiones
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121746
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel 4-(4-substituted phenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy/3,4-dimethoxy)-benzoyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one/thione derivatives (DHP 19) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antitumor activity against cancer stem cells. The compounds were synthesized in one pot. Enaminones E1 and E2 were reacted with substituted benzaldehydes and urea/thiourea
[...] Read more.
Novel 4-(4-substituted phenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy/3,4-dimethoxy)-benzoyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one/thione derivatives (DHP 19) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antitumor activity against cancer stem cells. The compounds were synthesized in one pot. Enaminones E1 and E2 were reacted with substituted benzaldehydes and urea/thiourea in the presence of glacial acetic acid. The synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis. The compounds were screened in vitro against colon cancer cell line (LOVO) colon cancer stem cells. Most of the compounds were found to be active against side population cancer stem cells with an inhibition of >50% at a 10 μM concentration. Compounds DHP-1, DHP-7 and DHP-9 were found to be inactive. Compound DHP-5 exhibited an in vitro anti-proliferative effect and arrested cancer cells at the Gap 2 phase (G2) checkpoint and demonstrated an inhibitory effect on tumor growth for a LOVO xenograft in a nude mouse experiment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Fractional Polysaccharides from Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla Gums
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121745
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla, widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum (GSG) and G. microphylla gum (GMG) were purified and precipitated using different concentrations of ethanol and isopropanol. The GSG and GMG, precipitated
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The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla, widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum (GSG) and G. microphylla gum (GMG) were purified and precipitated using different concentrations of ethanol and isopropanol. The GSG and GMG, precipitated in different stages, presented different characteristics, including polymer recovery, mannose/galactose ratio, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphological appearance. The galactomannan recovery of GSG and GMG in 33.3% ethanol was 81.7% and 82.5%, respectively, while that in 28.8% isopropanol was 81.3% and 82.9%, respectively. To achieve similar precipitation efficiency, the amount of isopropanol should be lower than that of ethanol because of the lower dielectric constant of isopropanol (20 vs. 25 for ethanol). The precipitation behavior of galactomannans in polar organic solvents was dependent on the molecular structures and properties of the solvent. A higher mannose/galactose ratio and a higher molecular weight was obtained in a lower concentration of alcohols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Combined Use of S. pombe and L. thermotolerans in Winemaking. Beneficial Effects Determined Through the Study of Wines’ Analytical Characteristics
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121744
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The most common way to produce red wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid bacteria for malolactic fermentation. This traditional winemaking methodology produces microbiologically stable red wines. However, under specific conditions off-flavours can occur, wine
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The most common way to produce red wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid bacteria for malolactic fermentation. This traditional winemaking methodology produces microbiologically stable red wines. However, under specific conditions off-flavours can occur, wine quality can suffer and human health problems are possible, especially after the second fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria. In warm countries, problems during the malolactic fermentation arise because of the high pH of the must, which makes it very difficult to properly control the process. Under such conditions, wines with high acetic acid and histamine concentrations are commonly produced. This study investigates a recent red
wine-making technology that uses a combination of Lachancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as an alternative to the conventional malolactic fermentation. This work studies new parameters such as aroma compounds, amino acids, ethanol index and sensory evaluation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe totally consumes malic acid while Lachancea thermotolerans produces lactic acid, avoiding excessive deacidification of musts with low acidity in warm viticulture areas. This methodology also reduces the malolactic fermentation hazards in wines with low acidity. The main products are wines that contain less acetic acid, less biogenic amines and precursors and less ethyl carbamate precursors than the traditional wines produced via conventional fermentation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Basis of the Fungicidal Activity of Tobacco Extracts against Valsa mali
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121743
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
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Abstract
Under pressure from social criticism and an unclear future, tobacco researchers have begun to seek alternative uses for the product. Here, we present our study on isolating tobacco compounds with fungicidal activity, which could be used as plant-derived pesticides. Using
Valsa mali as
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Under pressure from social criticism and an unclear future, tobacco researchers have begun to seek alternative uses for the product. Here, we present our study on isolating tobacco compounds with fungicidal activity, which could be used as plant-derived pesticides. Using
Valsa mali as the target fungus, agar plate tests were conducted to evaluate the fungicidal activity of various tobacco extracts, including tobacco leaves extracts prepared with different solvents, extracts of different tobacco cultivars, and samples from different tobacco organs. Fungal growth morphology was used as the criterion to evaluate the fungicidal activity of tobacco extracts. Correlation analyses between the fungicidal activities and the chemical components of tobacco extracts indicated the major chemical constituents with fungicidal activity. Then, the active compounds were isolated and their effects on the ultra-microstructures of V. mali was analyzed using scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy. The results suggested that tobacco extracts prepared with solvents of weaker polarity had higher fungicidal activity, and the inhibitory activity of tobacco extracts against V. mali was also cultivar dependent. Furthermore, the fungicidal effects of tobacco flower extracts were higher than those of the leaf extracts. Chemical analysis indicated that cembranoids were the main fungicidal substances, which act by destroying the endometrial structure of the fungus. Tobacco cembranoids at 80 μg/mL could completely inhibit the growth of V. mali, with an EC50 value of 13.18 μg/mL. Our study therefore suggests that tobacco leaves and inflorescences are excellent plant resources for the biological control of V. mali. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity and Urease Inhibition of Schiff Bases Derived from Isoniazid and Fluorinated Benzaldehydes and of Their Copper(II) Complexes
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121742
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to evaluate the influence of substitution on biological properties of Schiff bases and their metal complexes, a series of differently substituted fluorine-containing Schiff bases starting from the drug isoniazid (isonicotinylhydrazide) were prepared and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
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In order to evaluate the influence of substitution on biological properties of Schiff bases and their metal complexes, a series of differently substituted fluorine-containing Schiff bases starting from the drug isoniazid (isonicotinylhydrazide) were prepared and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Also, four copper(II) complexes of these Schiff bases were synthesized. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and urease inhibition. Two of the Schiff bases exerted activity against C. albicans. All copper(II) complexes showed excellent inhibitory properties against jack bean urease, considerably better than that of the standard inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Based Drugs: Opportunities and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle DeBouganin Diabody Fusion Protein Overcomes Drug Resistance to ADCs Comprised of Anti-Microtubule Agents
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121741
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antibody drug conjugates (ADC), comprised of highly potent small molecule payloads chemically conjugated to a full-length antibody, represent a growing class of therapeutic agents. The targeting of cytotoxic payloads via the specificity and selectivity of the antibody has led to substantial clinical benefits.
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Antibody drug conjugates (ADC), comprised of highly potent small molecule payloads chemically conjugated to a full-length antibody, represent a growing class of therapeutic agents. The targeting of cytotoxic payloads via the specificity and selectivity of the antibody has led to substantial clinical benefits. However, ADC potency can be altered by mechanisms of resistance such as overexpression of efflux pumps or anti-apoptotic proteins. DeBouganin is a de-immunized variant of bouganin, a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) that blocks protein synthesis, thereby leading to apoptosis. When conjugated to trastuzumab (T-deB), deBouganin was more potent than ado-trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) and unaffected by resistance mechanisms to which DM1 is susceptible. To further highlight the differentiating mechanism of action of deBouganin, HCC1419 and BT-474 tumor cells that survived T-DM1 or trastuzumab-MMAE (T-MMAE) treatment were treated with an anti-HER2 C6.5 diabody–deBouganin fusion protein or T-deB. C6.5 diabody–deBouganin and T-deB were potent against HCC1419 and BT-474 cells that were resistant to T-DM1 or T-MMAE killing. The resistant phenotype involved MDR pumps, Bcl-2 family members, and the presence of additional unknown pathways. Overall, the data suggest that deBouganin is effective against tumor cell resistance mechanisms selected in response to ADCs composed of anti-microtubule payloads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Photochemically Immobilized 4-Methylbenzoyl Cellulose as a Powerful Chiral Stationary Phase for Enantioselective Chromatography
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121740
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A process to immobilize para-methylbenzoyl cellulose (PMBC) on silica gel has been developed and applied to prepare chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for enantioselective chromatography. The immobilization was achieved by simple irradiation of the polysaccharide derivative with ultraviolet light after coating on a
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A process to immobilize para-methylbenzoyl cellulose (PMBC) on silica gel has been developed and applied to prepare chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for enantioselective chromatography. The immobilization was achieved by simple irradiation of the polysaccharide derivative with ultraviolet light after coating on a silica gel support. The influence of parameters such as irradiation time and solvent on immobilization effectiveness were investigated. The performance of the prepared immobilized phases were evaluated by injection of a series of racemic compounds onto the packed columns and determination of their chiral recognition ability. By contrast to the classical coated phase, the immobilized CSP can be used under various chromatographic conditions without limitation of organic solvent types as the mobile phase. This extended applicability permits to improve selectivity and to resolve chiral compounds which are not or only poorly soluble in the mobile phases which are compatible with the non-immobilized PMBC stationary phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Volatile and Nonvolatile Constituents and Antioxidant Capacity of Oleoresins in Three Taiwan Citrus Varieties as Determined by Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121735
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As local varieties of citrus fruit in Taiwan, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Tankan (C. tankan Hayata), and Murcott (C. reticulate × C. sinensis) face substantial competition on the market. In this study, we used carbon dioxide supercritical technology to
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As local varieties of citrus fruit in Taiwan, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Tankan (C. tankan Hayata), and Murcott (C. reticulate × C. sinensis) face substantial competition on the market. In this study, we used carbon dioxide supercritical technology to extract oleoresin from the peels of the three citrus varieties, adding alcohol as a solvent assistant to enhance the extraction rate. The supercritical fluid extraction was fractionated with lower terpene compounds in order to improve the oxygenated amounts of the volatile resins. The contents of oleoresin from the three varieties of citrus peels were then analyzed with GC/MS in order to identify 33 volatile compounds. In addition, the analysis results indicated that the non-volatile oleoresin extracted from the samples contains polymethoxyflavones (86.2~259.5 mg/g), limonoids (111.7~406.2 mg/g), and phytosterols (686.1~1316.4 μg/g). The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation, which test the oleoresin from the three kinds of citrus, exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The component polymethoxyflavones contributed the greatest share of the overall antioxidant capacity, while the limonoid and phytosterol components effectively coordinated with its effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms and Metabolomics of Natural Polyphenols Interfering with Breast Cancer Metastasis
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121634
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastatic cancers are the main cause of cancer-related death. In breast primary cancer, the five-year survival rate is close to 100%; however, for metastatic breast cancer, that rate drops to a mere 25%, due in part to the paucity of effective therapeutic options
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Metastatic cancers are the main cause of cancer-related death. In breast primary cancer, the five-year survival rate is close to 100%; however, for metastatic breast cancer, that rate drops to a mere 25%, due in part to the paucity of effective therapeutic options for treating metastases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that consumption of natural polyphenols significantly reduces the risk of cancer metastasis. Therefore, this review summarizes the research findings involving the molecular mechanisms and metabolomics of natural polyphenols and how they may be blocking breast cancer metastasis. Most natural polyphenols are thought to impair breast cancer metastasis through downregulation of MMPs expression, interference with the VEGF signaling pathway, modulation of EMT regulator, inhibition of NF-κB and mTOR expression, and other related mechanisms. Intake of natural polyphenols has been shown to impact endogenous metabolites and complex biological metabolic pathways in vivo. Breast cancer metastasis is a complicated process in which each step is modulated by a complex network of signaling pathways. We hope that by detailing the reported interactions between breast cancer metastasis and natural polyphenols, more attention will be directed to these promising candidates as effective adjunct therapies against metastatic breast cancer in the clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catechins and Human Health: Current State of the Science)
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Open AccessArticle Safe Synthesis of Alkylhydroxy and Alkylamino Nitramines
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121738
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three different protocols for the syntheses of hydroxyalkylnitramines are presented and compared. Safety issues regarding the synthesis of nitramines are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Structural Investigation of New Bio-Relevant Complexes of Lanthanides with 5-Hydroxyflavone: DNA Binding and Protein Interaction Studies
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121737
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the present work, we attempted to develop new metal coordination complexes of the natural flavonoid 5-hydroxyflavone with Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III). The resultant hydroxo complexes have been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and mass spectral
[...] Read more.
In the present work, we attempted to develop new metal coordination complexes of the natural flavonoid 5-hydroxyflavone with Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III). The resultant hydroxo complexes have been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and mass spectral studies. The general chemical formula of the complexes is [Ln(C15H9O3)3(OH)2(H2O)xnH2O, where Ln is the lanthanide cation and x = 0 for Sm(III), x = 1 for Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and n = 0 for Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), n = 1 for Eu(III), respectively. The proposed structures of the complexes were optimized by DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations and experimental determinations sustain the proposed structures of the hydroxo complexes, with two molecules of 5-hydroxyflavone acting as monoanionic bidentate chelate ligands. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been explored by fluorescence titration and UV-Vis absorption binding studies, and revealed that the synthesized complexes interact with DNA with binding constants (Kb) ~ 104. Human serum albumin (HSA) and transferrin (Tf) binding studies have also been performed by fluorescence titration techniques (fluorescence quenching studies, synchronous fluorescence spectra). The apparent association constants (Ka) and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from the fluorescence quenching experiment at 299 K, 308 K, and 318 K. The quenching curves indicate that the complexes bind to HSA with smaller affinity than the ligand, but to Tf with higher binding affinities than the ligand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: “Molecules against Alzheimer”
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121736
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Special Issue, entitled “Molecules against Alzheimer”, gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder
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This Special Issue, entitled “Molecules against Alzheimer”, gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules against Alzheimer)
Open AccessReview The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121734
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO
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Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required. Full article
Open AccessArticle Validation and Application of an Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Yuanhuacine Determination in Rat Plasma after Pulmonary Administration: Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a New Drug Delivery System
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121733
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Yuanhuacine was found to have significant inhibitory activity against A-549 human lung cancer cells. However, there would be serious adverse toxicity effects after systemic administration of yuanhuacine, such as by oral and intravenous ways. In order to achieve better curative effect and to
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Yuanhuacine was found to have significant inhibitory activity against A-549 human lung cancer cells. However, there would be serious adverse toxicity effects after systemic administration of yuanhuacine, such as by oral and intravenous ways. In order to achieve better curative effect and to alleviate the adverse toxicity effects, we tried to deliver yuanhuacine directly into the lungs. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) was used to detect the analyte and IS. After extraction (ether:dichloromethane = 8:1), the analyte and IS were separated on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) under a 5 min gradient elution using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. ESI positive mode was chosen for detection. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect, and extraction recovery. This new method for yuanhuacine concentration determination in rat plasma was reliable and could be applied for its preclinical and clinical monitoring purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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