Emerging Trends in Sustainable Soil Stabilization Techniques

A special issue of Geotechnics (ISSN 2673-7094).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 14544

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Centre for Architecture and Built Environment Research (CABER), University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Interests: sustainable geotechnics; expansive soils; stabilisation of expansive clay; cementitious materials; geopolymer; ground improvement
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Damages caused by expansive soils every year is estimated to be over $1 billion US in the USA, £150 million in the UK, and many billions of pounds worldwide. These damages are associated with failure to identify the extent of expansion in soils leading to the constant repair of damaged houses, roads and embankments due to the lack of a simplified and straightforward approach. Undoubtedly, the use of cement and lime in the mitigation of shrink–swell behaviour and improvement of the engineering properties of expansive clays cannot be overemphasized.

However, the environmental impact of the continuous emissions of toxic gases (carbon footprint) accompanying cement production, and with concerns regarding the built environment becoming increasingly urgent, there is a need for the development of novel eco-friendly materials for the stabilisation of expansive soils. Therefore, this Issue is aimed at bringing together original ideas on the application of waste materials and geopolymers in the stabilisation of expansive soils to evaluate micro–macro performance and create a better understanding on the behaviour of stabilized soils.

This Special Issue will focus on the development and application of sustainable soil stabilisation additives capable of improving the geo-mechanical properties of expansive soils, leading to the development of prediction models for soil CBR, stiffness, bearing capacity, permeability, swell potential, and unconfined compressive strength, including the micro-structural analysis of the stabilized soils. We welcome original research and review articles.

Dr. Samuel Abbey
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • soil stabilisation
  • expansive soils
  • geopolymers
  • soil–cement mixtures
  • by-product cementitious materials
  • unconfined compressive strength
  • CBR
  • microstructural analysis
  • prediction models

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 3034 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Temperature on the Shear Strength Behavior of a Silty Clay Soil
by Henok Hailemariam and Frank Wuttke
Geotechnics 2022, 2(1), 250-261; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2010011 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2307
Abstract
In this paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the yielding and shear strength behavior of a normally consolidated silty clay soil from eastern Germany. The shear strength tests were performed on remolded forms of the soil using a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the yielding and shear strength behavior of a normally consolidated silty clay soil from eastern Germany. The shear strength tests were performed on remolded forms of the soil using a triaxial cell which can regulate the temperature of the specimen. The experimental program comprised a series of pressure stepping compression consolidated drained (CD) triaxial tests at temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 °C. Overall, although the volume change behavior of the soil was found to exhibit some variations with changes in temperature, possibly due to changes in the double layer thickness of the clay fraction of the soil upon heating, the shear strength behavior (in terms of effective angle of internal friction) of the silty clay soil was found to exhibit minor changes with variations in temperature and can be assumed to be independent of temperature for the range considered in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Sustainable Soil Stabilization Techniques)
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14 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Early Age Characteristics of Lime-GGBS-Treated Gypseous Clays under Wet–Dry Cycles
by Samuel J. Abbey, Eyo U. Eyo and Jeremiah J. Jeremiah
Geotechnics 2021, 1(2), 402-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics1020019 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
Gypseous soils are capable of presenting ground construction challenges to civil and geotechnical engineers due to their unpredictable deformation characteristics. These undesirable responses are sometimes caused by environmental changes in moisture content due to temperature variations, fluctuation of underground water table, surface water, [...] Read more.
Gypseous soils are capable of presenting ground construction challenges to civil and geotechnical engineers due to their unpredictable deformation characteristics. These undesirable responses are sometimes caused by environmental changes in moisture content due to temperature variations, fluctuation of underground water table, surface water, and gypsum content. Hence, the adoption of effective and economical means of stabilising gypseous soils is imperative. This study’s focus is on the early age strength and microstructural characteristics of gypseous soils treated with lime and GGBS. Treated and untreated gypseous soils with 5%, 15%, and 25% gypsum content were subjected to wet–dry cycles while investigating unconfined compressive strength (UCS), water absorption, pH, microstructural changes, and swell. The analysis of the results shows that at zero cycle, the UCS of the untreated gypseous soils increases from 0.62 to 0.79 MPa and swell decreases from 69 to 23%, respectively, as gypsum content increases. However, upon subjection to wet–dry cycles, the UCS reduced from 0.16 to 0.08 MPa at the end of the sixth cycle due to dissolution of gypsum within the soil pores which reduced the strength. The result also shows that gypsum content increases water absorption and reduces the pH of the untreated gypseous soils because of the neutral pH of gypsum. Furthermore, lime-GGBS-treated gypseous soils maintained a higher pH after six wet–dry cycles compared to untreated gypseous soils due to the high pH of lime and the increase in calcium content which improved bonding. In addition, microstructural analysis using SEM indicated early age precipitation of cementitious compounds (CSH) for increasing strength of lime-GGBS-treated gypseous soils compared to untreated gypseous soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Sustainable Soil Stabilization Techniques)
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Review

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21 pages, 3188 KiB  
Review
Geopolymers as Alternative Sustainable Binders for Stabilisation of Clays—A Review
by Jeremiah J. Jeremiah, Samuel J. Abbey, Colin A. Booth and Anil Kashyap
Geotechnics 2021, 1(2), 439-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics1020021 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
The need to transit to greener options in soil stabilisation has revamped research on the use of industrial and agricultural by-products in order to cut down on the current carbon footprint from the use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and lime related binders [...] Read more.
The need to transit to greener options in soil stabilisation has revamped research on the use of industrial and agricultural by-products in order to cut down on the current carbon footprint from the use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and lime related binders for the treatment of problematic soils. This study is a review on the use of geopolymers constituted by alkali activation of several industrial wastes such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), glass powder (GP), palm oil fuel ash (POFA), silica fume (SF), rice husk ash (RHA), volcanic ash (VA), and marble powder (MP) for the stabilisation of weak clays. The performance of stabilised clays as subgrade and subbase materials for road pavement construction was evaluated by comparing the 7 day UCS of the treated clays with the strength requirement for stabilised materials as outlined in BS EN 16907-4. The result of the study shows that geopolymers can be employed in improving the engineering properties of problematic clays to meet practical applications. Strength improvement was observed in the stabilised clays with increased precursor content, molarity of alkaline activator, and curing period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Sustainable Soil Stabilization Techniques)
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23 pages, 9043 KiB  
Review
Enhancing the Engineering Properties of Subgrade Materials Using Processed Waste: A Review
by Samuel Y. Amakye, Samuel J. Abbey, Colin A. Booth and Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu
Geotechnics 2021, 1(2), 307-329; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics1020015 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4381
Abstract
Subgrade materials refer to the original ground underneath a road pavement, when these materials are made up of expansive soil it is referred to as expansive subgrade. Sometimes, these materials do not have sufficient capacity to support the weight of the road pavement [...] Read more.
Subgrade materials refer to the original ground underneath a road pavement, when these materials are made up of expansive soil it is referred to as expansive subgrade. Sometimes, these materials do not have sufficient capacity to support the weight of the road pavement and traffic load, which means they require some form of modification and re-engineering to enhance their load capacity. Chemical modification techniques using traditional stabilisers (such as cement and lime) have proved to be an effective means of subgrade stabilisation. However, high costs and environmental concerns associated with the use and production of these additives have highlighted the need for more sustainable and environmentally friendly substitutes. This study reviews the use of industrial by-products and other waste materials used for subgrade stabilisation, focusing on the sustainability of using processed wastes and how they alter the engineering properties of weak subgrade, compared to the use of cement and also reviews the availability of processed waste materials in quantities sufficient to meet the current demand for subgrade stabilisation. The findings illustrate that, processed waste is less expensive and has better sustainability credentials compared to cement. Moreover, processed wastes are available in sufficient quantities to meet existing demands for subgrade stabilisation. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of processed wastes should be promoted and utilised to improve and enhance the geotechnical properties of weak subgrade materials where possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Sustainable Soil Stabilization Techniques)
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