Special Issue "Innovation under Restrictions, Hybrid SMEs and the 5th Wave Theory"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business and Economics, University of Applied Sciences (FHM), Bielefeld, Germany
Interests: energy management; modeling; blue-green economy; industry 4.0; Internet of Things; Internet of Energy; digitalization; sustainability; international management; vocational training, education, business; CSR; SME management; cultural dimensions; 5th wave theory/tomorrow age; future studies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue, the effect of restrictions and limitations on the 5th wave theory and their impacts on innovation are investigated. It is important to make these innovative technologies, markets, and business simple and user-friendly to motivate HR and the public sector to face tomorrow’s shocks by showing them the potential benefits. Throughout human history, innovations have been generated through restrictions and challenges:

  1. Wars;
  2. Sanctions;
  3. Low sustainability;
  4. Risks; and
  5. Growing urbanizations.

Restriction influences sustainability. Thus, restrictions are necessary for humans to be able to develop and improve quality of liveability and life and make the world a better place; in short, humans need to struggle with these restrictions in order to find ways to meet their needs, as restrictions lead to attempts to find solutions, and these solutions usually are innovative. Even wars can play an important role in creating innovative solutions: As per the model in Figure 1, many innovative products were created through necessity due to wartime restrictions and were first used as war products before becoming the focus of research and then popularized in society.

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Figure 1. I-DWar Model (Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian, 2019).

The 5th wave/tomorrow age theory, which regards edge of tomorrow, was introduced by Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian in 2010 and evaluated and improved until 2017. Based on this theory, hybrid SMEs that are concerned with business and marketing, social responsibility such as CSR strategies, and being environmentally friendly, could improve clean economy and human life.

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Figure 2. The 5th wave Theory, Ages and Business and Economics Revolution (Invented by Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian, 2017–2019).

Germany post-World War II is a good example of this innovation under restrictons. In 2020, Germany is one of the most innovative economies in the world. Today, SMEs form more than 95% of businesses all around the World, and they play an indispensable role in developing a clean, innovative economy as well as sustainability in a country that aims at creating business and entrepreneurship. SMEs are introduced as the economic backbone of each country through improving inclusive and sustainable economic growth, providing employment and work for all, enhancing sustainable industrialization, and even as tool to achieve sustainable development. In this regard, SMEs could be used as techniques to achieve Sustainable Development Goals.

Hybrid SMEs are a new method which can enable SMEs to better manage resources and have the required flexibility to respond to and be ready for business conditions linked to the theory of the age of tomorrow. Hybrid SMEs founded on technology, HR competencies, sustainable strategies such as CSR or smartness could develop sustainability and create livable urban areas with a high quality of life by balancing between CSR and business economy.

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Figure 3. Hybrid SMEs (Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian, 2019).

Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • innovation
  • risk management
  • hybrid SMEs
  • sustainability
  • sustainable development
  • restrictions
  • limitation
  • passive defense
  • warden theory
  • high technologies
  • livability
  • quality of life
  • sustainable, livable urban settings
  • human resources
  • CSR
  • the 5th wave theory
  • tomorrow shocks readiness
  • ages/waves
  • environment
  • war
  • sanction
  • air pulotion
  • resources
  • 7PS model

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Financial and Non-Financial Obstacles to Innovation: Empirical Evidence at the Firm Level in the MENA Region
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010028 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Innovation, in all its forms, has become a central activity in companies. Moreover, innovation is considered as the engine of growth in several countries. The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of innovation (product and process) in firms in [...] Read more.
Innovation, in all its forms, has become a central activity in companies. Moreover, innovation is considered as the engine of growth in several countries. The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of innovation (product and process) in firms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region via concentrating on the impact of financial and non-financial obstacles. The empirical study refers to row data collected by the World Bank’s Survey of Enterprises (WBES) between 2013 and 2020 in 10 MENA countries. The empirical results of the probit model estimation show that international quality certification, women’s participation in ownership, and investment in research and development (R&D) have a positive impact on all types of innovation. Nevertheless, small firms, sole proprietorships, and firms managed by women are found to be less innovative. The problem of endogeneity between innovation and financial obstacles is controlled thanks to the use of the instrumental regression method (IV-probit). The results confirm that the variable measuring the financial obstacles is endogenous, and it impacts all types of innovation negatively. The results of the IV-probit regression show that the non-financial obstacles related to the business environment which negatively affect innovation are: business licensing and permits, corruption, access to electricity, labor regulations, political instability, and the practices of competitors in the informal sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation under Restrictions, Hybrid SMEs and the 5th Wave Theory)
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Article
Economic Growth, Increasing Productivity of SMEs, and Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010020 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The empowerment of small and medium economic enterprises will drive economic growth. The purpose of this study is to analyze (1) how economic growth works as a determinant of increasing the productivity of small and medium enterprises; (2) the influence of government policies, [...] Read more.
The empowerment of small and medium economic enterprises will drive economic growth. The purpose of this study is to analyze (1) how economic growth works as a determinant of increasing the productivity of small and medium enterprises; (2) the influence of government policies, business capital support, and the strengthening of human resource capacity on the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs); and (3) strategies to increase business productivity and the sustainability of SMEs. We used a sequential explanatory design, which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research, and data were obtained through observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, and documentation. The results of the study indicate that economic growth coupled with technological innovation will boost the productivity of economic enterprises and increase people’s welfare. Government policies, business capital support, and human resource capacity strengthening simultaneously have a positive effect on the development of SMEs, with a determination coefficient of 97.6%. Based on the results of this study, an economic growth strategy based on technological innovation is recommended for government decision making as an effort to increase the productivity of community economic enterprises in Makassar City, Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation under Restrictions, Hybrid SMEs and the 5th Wave Theory)
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