# Low-Voltage Ride through Capability Augmentation of DFIG-Based Wind Farms Using Series-Parallel Resonance-Type Fault Current Limiter

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Series-Parallel Resonance-Type Fault Current Limiter (SPRFCL)

#### 2.1. Architecture

#### 2.2. Mathematical Model

#### 2.3. Working Principle and Control Strategy

## 3. Comparison with Existing FCLs

#### 3.1. Capacitive Bridge-Type Fault Current Limiter (CBFCL)

#### 3.2. Parallel Resonance-Type Fault Current Limiter (PRFCL)

## 4. Study System Configuration

#### 4.1. Modeling of the Wind Turbine

#### 4.2. Modeling of the DFIG

## 5. Performance Evaluation of the Proposed SPRFCL

#### 5.1. Graphical Analysis: Symmetrical Fault

#### 5.2. Graphical Analysis: Asymmetrical Fault

#### 5.3. Index-Based Analysis

#### 5.4. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Analysis

#### 5.5. Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) Analysis

#### 5.6. Power Consumption across the FCLs

#### 5.7. Performance Comparison with Conventional LVRT Techniques

## 6. Economic Viewpoint of the Application of the SPRFCL

## 7. Conclusions

- The SPRFCL assures better overall voltage, current, power, speed, and torque profiles of the DFIG for both symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. The SPRFCL assures less perturbations in every response and provided better damping so as to make the settling time of each responses the lowest.
- The SPRFCL scores the lowest in index-based analysis, indicating lower deviation in system responses. The SPRFCL has improved the PCC voltage by 87.79%, when compared to the voltage profile without any FCL during a symmetrical fault. The PRFCL and CBFCL have improvements of 78.36% and 71.47%, respectively, which are much lower than that of the SPRFCL. Similarly, the SPRFCL guarantees the highest improvement in PCC voltage during an asymmetrical fault as well, scoring 16.74% more than the PRFCL and 17.54% more than the CBFCL.
- Better THD profiles and more reliable transient SSR responses are observed with the SPRFCL.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

DFIG | Doubly fed induction generator |

FCL | Fault current limiter |

LVRT | Low-voltage ride-through capability |

WF | Wind farm |

DG | Distributed generator |

PCC | Point of common coupling |

RSC | Rotor side converter |

GSC | Grid side converter |

THD | Total harmonic distortion |

SSR | Subsynchronous resonance |

CBFCL | Capacitive bridge-type fault current limiter |

PRFCL | Parallel resonance-type fault current limiter |

## Appendix A

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Rated power | 2 MW |

Rated voltage | 575 V |

DC-link nominal voltage | 1150 V |

DC-link capacitance value | 10,000 $\mathsf{\mu}$F |

Wind speed | 15 ms${}^{-1}$ |

Frequency | 60 Hz |

Resistance of stator | 0.023 pu |

Magnetizing inductance | 2.9 pu |

Leakage inductance of stator | 0.18 pu |

Inertia constant | 0.685 |

Leakage inductance of wound rotor | 0.16 pu |

Wound rotor resistance | 0.016 pu |

Friction factor | 0.01 |

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**Figure 21.**Percentage THD of the PCC voltage during symmetrical fault for the (

**a**) SPRFCL, (

**b**) PRFCL, (

**c**) CBFCL, and (

**d**) No FCL.

**Figure 22.**Percentage THD of the PCC voltage during asymmetrical fault for the (

**a**) SPRFCL and (

**b**) PRFCL.

Index Parameters (%) | No FCL | CBFCL | PRFCL | SPRFCL |
---|---|---|---|---|

vlt(pu.s) | 10.330 | 2.947 | 2.235 | 1.313 |

pow(pu.s) | 15.833 | 5.717 | 2.738 | 2.085 |

dclink(pu.s) | 9.023 | 0.149 | 0.120 | 0.053 |

spd(pu.s) | 0.310 | 2.876 | 0.406 | 0.140 |

rtr(pu.s) | 10.807 | 7.230 | 6.188 | 3.375 |

str(pu.s) | 8.591 | 6.802 | 5.579 | 1.377 |

torque(pu.s) | 17.762 | 8.397 | 7.779 | 2.439 |

Index Parameters (%) | No FCL | CBFCL | PRFCL | SPRFCL |
---|---|---|---|---|

vlt(pu.s) | 7.377 | 2.199 | 2.141 | 0.906 |

pow(pu.s) | 10.735 | 4.131 | 3.233 | 1.591 |

dclink(pu.s) | 0.393 | 0.085 | 0.062 | 0.044 |

spd(pu.s) | 1.757 | 0.257 | 0.249 | 0.085 |

rtr(pu.s) | 5.881 | 5.036 | 4.292 | 2.189 |

str(pu.s) | 7.376 | 4.371 | 3.623 | 1.468 |

torque(pu.s) | 15.129 | 7.547 | 6.387 | 2.894 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Haque, M.Y.-Y.U.; Hasan, J.; Islam, M.R.; Islam, M.R.
Low-Voltage Ride through Capability Augmentation of DFIG-Based Wind Farms Using Series-Parallel Resonance-Type Fault Current Limiter. *Wind* **2021**, *1*, 20-43.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wind1010002

**AMA Style**

Haque MY-YU, Hasan J, Islam MR, Islam MR.
Low-Voltage Ride through Capability Augmentation of DFIG-Based Wind Farms Using Series-Parallel Resonance-Type Fault Current Limiter. *Wind*. 2021; 1(1):20-43.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wind1010002

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Haque, Md. Yah-Ya Ul, Jakir Hasan, Md. Rashidul Islam, and Md. Rabiul Islam.
2021. "Low-Voltage Ride through Capability Augmentation of DFIG-Based Wind Farms Using Series-Parallel Resonance-Type Fault Current Limiter" *Wind* 1, no. 1: 20-43.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wind1010002