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Writing Units or Decades First in Two Digit Numbers Dictation Tasks: The Case of Arabic an Inverted Language^{ †}

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Cross-Linguistic Studies of Transcoding

#### 1.2. Transcoding and Models of Number Processing

#### 1.3. Characteristics of the Number System in Arabic

#### 1.4. The Present Study

#### 1.5. Objectives and Hypotheses

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Results

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The units-first (right to left) and decades-first (left to right) writing pattern rates as a function of two-digit numbers category (teens, identical, tens and different).

**Figure 2.**The units-first (right to left) and decades-first (left to right) writing pattern rates as a function of educational level (primary, junior-high, high, higher).

**Figure 3.**The units-first (right to left) writing pattern rates as a function of two-digit numbers category (teens, identical, tens and different) and educational level (primary, junior-high, high, higher).

**Figure 4.**The decades-first (left to right) writing pattern rates as a function of two-digit numbers category (teens, identical, tens and different) and educational level (primary, junior-high, high, higher).

**Table 1.**Summary of number processing models and their predicted units/decades first writing patterns in two-digit numbers transcoding to dictation.

Number Processing Model | Number Representations, Formats, Codes, Elements | Semantic Representation | Format Dependent (Verbal, Numeric) | Transcoding Process | Expected Units First/Decades First Writing Patterns |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

The Triple Code | Auditory-Verbal | No | No | Direct | Units First |

Numeric-Verbal | |||||

Analog | |||||

Deloche and Seron | Analysis | No | Yes | Direct | Units First |

Categorization | |||||

Implementation | |||||

Production | |||||

ADAPT | Memory | No | Yes | Direct | Units First |

Abstract Modular | Comprehension | Yes | No | Abstract representation | Decades First |

Production | |||||

The Encoding Complex | Verbal | No | Yes | Reading dependent | Units First |

Non-verbal | |||||

Intermediate Representations-IR | Lexical | Yes | Yes | Intermediate representation dependent | Units First |

Syntactic | |||||

Power and Dal Martello | Comprehension | Yes | No | Lexical–semantic representation | Units First |

Production |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ganayim, D.; Dowker, A.
Writing Units or Decades First in Two Digit Numbers Dictation Tasks: The Case of Arabic an Inverted Language. *Med. Sci. Forum* **2022**, *8*, 10.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10654

**AMA Style**

Ganayim D, Dowker A.
Writing Units or Decades First in Two Digit Numbers Dictation Tasks: The Case of Arabic an Inverted Language. *Medical Sciences Forum*. 2022; 8(1):10.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10654

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ganayim, Deia, and Ann Dowker.
2022. "Writing Units or Decades First in Two Digit Numbers Dictation Tasks: The Case of Arabic an Inverted Language" *Medical Sciences Forum* 8, no. 1: 10.
https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10654