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Network, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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21 pages, 3552 KiB  
Article
Localization of a BLE Device Based on Single-Device RSSI and DOA Measurements
by Harsha Kandula, Veena Chidurala, Yuan Cao and Xinrong Li
Network 2024, 4(2), 196-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/network4020010 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Indoor location services often use Bluetooth low energy (BLE) devices for their low energy consumption and easy implementation. Applications like device monitoring, ranging, and asset tracking utilize the received signal strength (RSS) of the BLE signal to estimate the proximity of a device [...] Read more.
Indoor location services often use Bluetooth low energy (BLE) devices for their low energy consumption and easy implementation. Applications like device monitoring, ranging, and asset tracking utilize the received signal strength (RSS) of the BLE signal to estimate the proximity of a device from the receiver. However, in multipath environments, RSS-based solutions may not provide an accurate estimation. In such environments, receivers with antenna arrays are used to calculate the difference in time of flight (ToF) and therefore calculate the direction of arrival (DoA) of the Bluetooth signal. Other techniques like triangulation have also been used, such as having multiple transmitters or receivers as a network of sensors. To find a lost item, devices like Tile© use an onboard beeper to notify users of their presence. In this paper, we present a system that uses a single-measurement device and describe the method of measurement to estimate the location of a BLE device using RSS. A BLE device is configured as an Eddystone beacon for periodic transmission of advertising packets with RSS information. We developed a smartphone application to read RSS information from the beacon, designed an algorithm to estimate the DoA, and used the phone’s internal sensors to evaluate the DoA with respect to true north. The proposed measurement method allows for asset tracking by iterative measurements that provide the direction of the beacon and take the user closer at every step. The receiver application is easily deployable on a smartphone, and the algorithm provides direction of the beacon within a 30° range, as suggested by the provided results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Mobile Computing, Communication, and Sensing Systems)
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21 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
Multi-Connectivity for Multicast Video Streaming in Cellular Networks
by Sadaf ul Zuhra, Prasanna Chaporkar, Abhay Karandikar and H. Vincent Poor
Network 2024, 4(2), 175-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/network4020009 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The escalating demand for high-quality video streaming poses a major challenge for communication networks today. Catering to these bandwidth-hungry video streaming services places a huge burden on the limited spectral resources of communication networks, limiting the resources available for other services as well. [...] Read more.
The escalating demand for high-quality video streaming poses a major challenge for communication networks today. Catering to these bandwidth-hungry video streaming services places a huge burden on the limited spectral resources of communication networks, limiting the resources available for other services as well. Large volumes of video traffic can lead to severe network congestion, particularly during live streaming events, which require sending the same content to a large number of users simultaneously. For such applications, multicast transmission can effectively combat network congestion while meeting the demands of all the users by serving groups of users requesting the same content over shared spectral resources. Streaming services can further benefit from multi-connectivity, which allows users to receive content from multiple base stations simultaneously. Integrating multi-connectivity within multicast streaming can improve the system resource utilization while also providing seamless connectivity to multicast users. Toward this end, this work studied the impact of using multi-connectivity (MC) alongside wireless multicast for meeting the resource requirements of video streaming. Our findings show that MC substantially enhances the performance of multicast streaming, particularly benefiting cell-edge users who often experience poor channel conditions. We especially considered the number of users that can be simultaneously served by multi-connected multicast systems. It was observed that about 60% of the users that are left unserved under single-connectivity multicast are successfully served using the same resources by employing multi-connectivity in multicast transmissions. We prove that the optimal resource allocation problem for MC multicast is NP-hard. As a solution, we present a greedy approximation algorithm with an approximation factor of (11/e). Furthermore, we establish that no other polynomial-time algorithm can offer a superior approximation. To generate realistic video traffic patterns in our simulations, we made use of traces from actual videos. Our results clearly demonstrate that multi-connectivity leads to significant enhancements in the performance of multicast streaming. Full article
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25 pages, 5444 KiB  
Article
An Enhanced Mechanism for Fault Tolerance in Agricultural Wireless Sensor Networks
by Mounya Smara and Al-Sakib Khan Pathan
Network 2024, 4(2), 150-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/network4020008 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Fault tolerance is a critical aspect for any wireless sensor network (WSN), which can be defined in plain terms as the quality of being dependable or performing consistently well. In other words, it may be described as the effectiveness of fault tolerance in [...] Read more.
Fault tolerance is a critical aspect for any wireless sensor network (WSN), which can be defined in plain terms as the quality of being dependable or performing consistently well. In other words, it may be described as the effectiveness of fault tolerance in the event of crucial component failures in the network. As a WSN is composed of sensors with constrained energy resources, network disconnections and faults may occur because of a power failure or exhaustion of the battery. When such a network is used for precision agriculture, which needs periodic and timely readings from the agricultural field, necessary measures are needed to handle the effects of such faults in the network. As climate change is affecting many parts of the globe, WSN-based precision agriculture could provide timely and early warnings to the farmers about unpredictable weather events and they could take the necessary measures to save their crops or to lessen the potential damage. Considering this as a critical application area, in this paper, we propose a fault-tolerant scheme for WSNs deployed for precision agriculture. Along with the description of our mechanism, we provide a theoretical operational model, simulation, analysis, and a formal verification using the UPPAAL model checker. Full article
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17 pages, 1664 KiB  
Article
Medical Data in Wireless Body Area Networks: Device Authentication Techniques and Threat Mitigation Strategies Based on a Token-Based Communication Approach
by Jan Herbst, Matthias Rüb, Sogo Pierre Sanon, Christoph Lipps and Hans D. Schotten
Network 2024, 4(2), 133-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/network4020007 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), low power, and short-range wireless communication in a near-body area provide advantages, particularly in the medical and healthcare sector: (i) they enable continuous monitoring of patients and (ii) the recording and correlation of physical and biological information. Along [...] Read more.
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), low power, and short-range wireless communication in a near-body area provide advantages, particularly in the medical and healthcare sector: (i) they enable continuous monitoring of patients and (ii) the recording and correlation of physical and biological information. Along with the utilization and integration of these (sensitive) private and personal data, there are substantial requirements concerning security and privacy, as well as protection during processing and transmission. Contrary to the star topology frequently used in various standards, the overall concept of a novel low-data rate token-based WBAN framework is proposed. This work further comprises the evaluation of strategies for handling medical data with WBANs and emphasizes the importance and necessity of encryption and security strategies in the context of sensitive information. Furthermore, this work considers the recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI), which are opening up opportunities for enhancing cyber resilience, but on the other hand, also new attack vectors. Moreover, the implications of targeted regulatory measures, such as the European AI Act, are considered. In contrast to, for instance, the proposed star network topologies of the IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN standard or the Technical Committee (TC) SmartBAN of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), the concept of a ring topology is proposed which concatenates information in the form of a ‘data train’ and thus results in faster and more efficient communication. Beyond that, the conductivity of human skin is included in the approach presented to incorporate a supplementary channel. This direct contact requirement not only fortifies the security of the system but also facilitates a reliable means of secure communication, pivotal in maintaining the integrity of sensitive health data. The work identifies different threat models associated with the WBAN system and evaluates potential data vulnerabilities and risks to maximize security. It highlights the crucial balance between security and efficiency in WBANs, using the token-based approach as a case study. Further, it sets a foundation for future healthcare technology advancements, aiming to ensure the secure and efficient integration of patient data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trustworthy Networking)
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