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Network, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Industrial communication has some major demands that are indispensable. First, it has to be reliable and predictable. However, wireless communication has also gained interest because it is cheaper and easier to maintain as compared to wires, and it is a prerequisite for certain applications, such as moving devices. Separate solutions exist for both the deterministic communication Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN), which is wire-bound, and for wireless communication, e.g., 5G, which does not provide the same degree of reliability. The combination of both is challenging and does not work out-of-the-box, which is why we analyzed the channel access in 5G and developed a scheduling mechanism that allows TSN traffic to be transmitted over 5G connections. View this paper
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23 pages, 934 KiB  
Article
Markov-Based Malware Propagation Modeling and Analysis in Multi-Layer Networks
by Stavros Karageorgiou and Vasileios Karyotis
Network 2022, 2(3), 456-478; https://doi.org/10.3390/network2030028 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
In this paper, we focus on the dynamics of the spread of malicious software (malware) in multi-layer networks of various types, e.g., cyber-physical systems. Recurring malware has been one of the major challenges in modern networks, and significant research and development has been [...] Read more.
In this paper, we focus on the dynamics of the spread of malicious software (malware) in multi-layer networks of various types, e.g., cyber-physical systems. Recurring malware has been one of the major challenges in modern networks, and significant research and development has been dedicated to mitigating it. The majority of relevant works has focused on networks characterized by “flat” topologies, namely topologies in which all nodes consist of a single layer, studying the dynamics of propagation of a specific threat or various types of malware over a homogeneous topology. As cyber-physical systems and multi-layer networks in general are gaining in popularity and penetration, more targeted studies are needed. In this work, we focus on the propagation dynamics of recurring malware, namely Susceptible–Infected–Susceptible (SIS type) in multi-layer topologies consisting of combinations of two different types of networks, e.g., a small-world overlaying a random geometric, or other such combinations. We utilize a stochastic modeling framework based on Markov Random Fields for analyzing the propagation dynamics of malware over such networks. Through analysis and simulation, we discover the most vulnerable and the most robust topology among the six considered combinations, as well as a result of rather practical use, namely that the denser the network, the more flexibility it provides for malware mitigation eventually. Full article
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16 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Analysis of 5G Channel Access for Collaboration with TSN Concluding at a 5G Scheduling Mechanism
by Dennis Krummacker, Benedikt Veith, Christoph Fischer and Hans Dieter Schotten
Network 2022, 2(3), 440-455; https://doi.org/10.3390/network2030027 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
As 5G enters the application field of industrial communications, compatibility with technologies of wired deterministic communications such as Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) needs to be considered during the standardization process. While consideration of underlying integration architectures and basic resource mapping are already part of [...] Read more.
As 5G enters the application field of industrial communications, compatibility with technologies of wired deterministic communications such as Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) needs to be considered during the standardization process. While consideration of underlying integration architectures and basic resource mapping are already part of the standard, necessary traffic forwarding schemes are currently planned to be deployed in additional interfaces located at the edge of a 5G System. This analysis highlights the extent to which internal 5G mechanisms can be used to execute the traffic forwarding of TSN streams according to the requirements of the TSN control plane. It concludes with the recognition that a static prioritization of logical channels is not appropriate for the treatment of TSN streams over the 5G air interface. A novel prioritization mechanism of logical data channels is derived, which enables the execution of TSN-compliant traffic shaping over 5G RAN. Subsequently, a proof of concept is implemented and simulated for evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networking Technologies for Cyber-Physical Systems)
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21 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
An Introduction of a Modular Framework for Securing 5G Networks and Beyond
by Ed Kamya Kiyemba Edris, Mahdi Aiash and Jonathan Loo
Network 2022, 2(3), 419-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/network2030026 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2811
Abstract
Fifth Generation Mobile Network (5G) is a heterogeneous network in nature, made up of multiple systems and supported by different technologies. It will be supported by network services such as device-to-device (D2D) communications. This will enable the new use cases to provide access [...] Read more.
Fifth Generation Mobile Network (5G) is a heterogeneous network in nature, made up of multiple systems and supported by different technologies. It will be supported by network services such as device-to-device (D2D) communications. This will enable the new use cases to provide access to other services within the network and from third-party service providers (SPs). End-users with their user equipment (UE) will be able to access services ubiquitously from multiple SPs that might share infrastructure and security management, whereby implementing security from one domain to another will be a challenge. This highlights a need for a new and effective security approach to address the security of such a complex system. This article proposes a network service security (NSS) modular framework for 5G and beyond that consists of different security levels of the network. It reviews the security issues of D2D communications in 5G, and it is used to address security issues that affect the users and SPs in an integrated and heterogeneous network such as the 5G enabled D2D communications network. The conceptual framework consists of a physical layer, network access, service and D2D security levels. Finally, it recommends security mechanisms to address the security issues at each level of the 5G-enabled D2D communications network. Full article
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21 pages, 9756 KiB  
Review
Phase Shift Design in RIS Empowered Wireless Networks: From Optimization to AI-Based Methods
by Zongze Li, Shuai Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Yang Li, Miaowen Wen, Yik-Chung Wu and H. Vincent Poor
Network 2022, 2(3), 398-418; https://doi.org/10.3390/network2030025 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3641
Abstract
Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) offer the potential to customize the radio propagation environment for wireless networks. To fully exploit the advantages of RISs in wireless systems, the phases of the reflecting elements must be jointly designed with conventional communication resources, such as beamformers, [...] Read more.
Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) offer the potential to customize the radio propagation environment for wireless networks. To fully exploit the advantages of RISs in wireless systems, the phases of the reflecting elements must be jointly designed with conventional communication resources, such as beamformers, the transmit power, and computation time. However, due to the unique constraints on the phase shifts and the massive numbers of reflecting units and users in large-scale networks, the resulting optimization problems are challenging to solve. This paper provides a review of the current optimization methods and artificial-intelligence-based methods for handling the constraints imposed by RISs and compares them in terms of the solution quality and computational complexity. Future challenges in phase-shift optimization involving RISs are also described, and potential solutions are discussed. Full article
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9 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Implementation and Evaluation of HTTP/3 Connectivity Check Using Happy Eyeballs Algorithm
by Tomofumi Matsuzawa and Kyosuke Ichikawa
Network 2022, 2(3), 389-397; https://doi.org/10.3390/network2030024 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2257
Abstract
The HTTP Alternative Services (Alt-Svc) method is defined as an application to check connectivity in HTTP/3. This method is designed based on the fact that communication with old HTTP is guaranteed and the HTTP/3 adoption rate is not necessarily dominant, and it is [...] Read more.
The HTTP Alternative Services (Alt-Svc) method is defined as an application to check connectivity in HTTP/3. This method is designed based on the fact that communication with old HTTP is guaranteed and the HTTP/3 adoption rate is not necessarily dominant, and it is considered effective in the early stages of transition. However, once HTTP/3 has reached its peak and the transitional period has passed, the uncertainty and redundancy of the Alt-Svc procedure become detrimental. In Alt-Svc, the procedure involves first completing the old HTTP connection to use HTTP/3, and then migrating to HTTP/3 if possible; however, because HTTP/3 is a protocol that eliminates the waste of the old HTTP handshake (TCP handshake followed by TLS handshake), HTTP/3 does not fully benefit from the rapid connection establishment of HTTP/3. Therefore, we propose a method to apply the Happy Eyeballs algorithm, which is used for IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity checks, to the old HTTP and HTTP/3 connectivity checks. The Happy Eyeballs algorithm performs the two selections in parallel to eliminate the delay that occurs in sequential processing, but the proposed method differs from the conventional Happy Eyeballs algorithm in that, even if the old HTTP is adopted once, it switches to the HTTP/3 connection if it is possible to connect using HTTP/3. The proposed method differs from the conventional Happy Eyeballs algorithm by introducing a mechanism to switch to HTTP/3 connections when HTTP/3 connections are available, even when the old HTTP is adopted. Results of the evaluation experiments demonstrated that the adoption rate of HTTP/3 increases in environments with high communication latency because the old HTTP performs the TLS handshake after the TCP handshake, but with this improvement, HTTP/3 is preferentially selected even in low latency environments when it is selectable. Full article
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19 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
A Deep Contextual Bandit-Based End-to-End Slice Provisioning Approach for Efficient Allocation of 5G Network Resources
by Ralph Voltaire J. Dayot, In-Ho Ra and Hyung-Jin Kim
Network 2022, 2(3), 370-388; https://doi.org/10.3390/network2030023 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1988
Abstract
5G networks have been experiencing challenges in handling the heterogeneity and influx of user requests brought upon by the constant emergence of various services. As such, network slicing is considered one of the critical technologies for improving the performance of 5G networks. This [...] Read more.
5G networks have been experiencing challenges in handling the heterogeneity and influx of user requests brought upon by the constant emergence of various services. As such, network slicing is considered one of the critical technologies for improving the performance of 5G networks. This technology has shown great potential for enhancing network scalability and dynamic service provisioning through the effective allocation of network resources. This paper presents a Deep Reinforcement Learning-based network slicing scheme to improve resource allocation in 5G networks. First, a Contextual Bandit model for the network slicing process is created, and then a Deep Reinforcement Learning-based network slicing agent (NSA) is developed. The agent’s goal is to maximize every action’s reward by considering the current network state and resource utilization. Additionally, we utilize network theory concepts and methods for node selection, ranking, and mapping. Extensive simulation has been performed to show that the proposed scheme can achieve higher action rewards, resource efficiency, and network throughput compared to other algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network Slicing)
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