Next Issue
Volume 4, September
Previous Issue
Volume 4, March
 
 

Biologics, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 8 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 3071 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Clinical Results of Single-Injection Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) as a Therapeutic Option/Tool in Knee Osteoarthritis
by Krishna Subramanyam, Subhadra Poornima, Satish Kumar and Qurratulain Hasan
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 218-231; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020015 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Purpose: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a very common cartilage disorder affecting millions of people globally and is characterized by pain, stiffness, swelling, loss of articular cartilage, and osteophyte formation, resulting in disability. The presently available treatments for KOA are palliative. Hence, there is [...] Read more.
Purpose: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a very common cartilage disorder affecting millions of people globally and is characterized by pain, stiffness, swelling, loss of articular cartilage, and osteophyte formation, resulting in disability. The presently available treatments for KOA are palliative. Hence, there is a need to explore a non-surgical treatment portfolio. Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) is one of the predominant attention-drawing managements/treatments for KOA in recent times due to its potential advantages of disease-modifying and regeneration capacities. Principle: This study aimed to evaluate the role of single-injection autologous BMAC as a therapeutic option in the treatment of KOA and evaluate the functional and clinical outcomes of KOA patients. In this study, 132 patients with KOA (Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade II and III) were included as per the inclusion criteria. Autologous bone marrow was aspirated and separated, and concentrated bone marrow aspirate was administered into the knee joint of the affected individual. Results: At the end of the 12th month (end of the follow-up period), 95% of patients showed complete pain relief and improvement in joint function, which shows that the results were promising and encouraging. Unpaired t-test results also indicated that the two-tailed p-value is less than 0.0001, and the difference is extremely statistically significant. No adverse effects were observed in the study patients. Conclusions: BMAC therapy has potential, with satisfactory, efficient, and durable results in KL grades II and III in KOA patients. This can be a safe alternative therapy in the treatment of KOA, especially in the early grades of OA. In summary, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India that evaluated BMAC efficacy both subjectively and objectively in KOA (KL-II and KL-III) patients. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 4776 KiB  
Article
Two Coffee Diterpenes, Kahweol and Cafestol, Inhibit Extracellular Melanogenesis: An In Vitro Pilot Study
by Shilpi Goenka
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 202-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020014 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Hyperpigmentation skin disorders are marked by an abnormal accumulation or export of melanin pigment synthesized within melanocytes and pose a significant aesthetic concern. The search for novel natural compounds that exhibit pharmacological potential for treating pigmentation disorders is growing. In this study, kahweol [...] Read more.
Hyperpigmentation skin disorders are marked by an abnormal accumulation or export of melanin pigment synthesized within melanocytes and pose a significant aesthetic concern. The search for novel natural compounds that exhibit pharmacological potential for treating pigmentation disorders is growing. In this study, kahweol (KW) and cafestol (CFS), two structural analogs of coffee diterpenes, were evaluated and compared for their effects on melanogenesis using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes derived from Asian and African American skin. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of the effects of KW and CFS on melanogenesis yet. We first screened nontoxic concentrations of both compounds using an MTS assay after 72 h incubations and subsequently tested their effects on melanin synthesis and export. Cellular tyrosinase activity and cell-free mushroom tyrosinase activity were assayed to study the mechanisms of melanogenesis suppression. Human melanocytes from a moderately pigmented donor (HEMn-MP cells) and from a darkly pigmented donor (HEMn-DP cells) were next examined, and effects on cellular viability, melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity, and melanin export (quantitated via dendricity) were similarly examined for both compounds. Our results show that KW and CFS did not significantly affect intracellular melanin content but suppressed extracellular melanin in B16F10 cells and dendritic parameters in human melanocytes, indicating their unique capacity to target extracellular melanogenesis and melanin export. Although KW showed a greater extracellular melanogenesis inhibitory capacity in B16F10 cells, in both primary melanocyte cells, CFS emerged as a potent inhibitor of melanin export compared to KW. Together, these results reveal novel modes of action of both compounds and indicate a promise to use CFS as a novel candidate for treating hyperpigmentation disorders of the human skin for clinical and cosmetic use. Additional research is necessary to shed light on the molecular pathways and the efficacy of melanogenesis inhibition by CFS in 3D human skin equivalents and in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 329 KiB  
Conference Report
Standards and Metrology for Viral Vectors as Molecular Tools: Outcomes from a CCQM Workshop
by Jonathan J. Campbell, Neil Almond, Young-Kyong Bae, Ravneet Bhuller, Andrea Briones, Sang-Joon Cho, Megan H. Cleveland, Thomas E. Cleveland IV, Francis Galaway, Hua-Jun He, Ulrike Herbrand, Jim F. Huggett, Sarah Kempster, Ibolya E. Kepiro, Arifa S. Khan, Edward Kwee, Wilson Li, Sheng Lin-Gibson, Luise Luckau, Caterina Minelli, Max G. Ryadnov, Isobel Searing, Lili Wang, Alexandra S. Whale and Julian H. Braybrookadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 187-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020013 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Viral vectors are agents enabling gene transfer and genome editing and have widespread utility across the healthcare and biotechnology sectors. In January 2023, the International Bureau for Weights and Measures’ Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM) held a workshop on Metrology for [...] Read more.
Viral vectors are agents enabling gene transfer and genome editing and have widespread utility across the healthcare and biotechnology sectors. In January 2023, the International Bureau for Weights and Measures’ Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM) held a workshop on Metrology for Viral systems as molecular tools. The workshop brought together international leaders from across regulatory, industry, government science, and metrology sectors to better understand key challenges for the community: Exploring current limitations in the measurement of virus-derived, virus-based, and virus-like systems in terms of quantification and characterisation; surveying the state-of-the-art in analytical methods and reference material provision for these entities; and initiating a dialog for the strategic development and implementation of suitable standardisation approaches for this sector. This article presents the workshop background and rationale, presentation summaries, conclusions, and recommendations. Full article
10 pages, 579 KiB  
Review
Unveiling the Potential of JAK Inhibitors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Shahed Kamal, Sheng Wei Lo, Samantha McCall, Beverly Rodrigues, Andrew H. Tsoi and Jonathan P. Segal
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 177-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020012 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Background: Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors represent a novel class of oral therapies showing efficacy in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), challenging conventional treatment paradigms. Summary: This review provides an overview of the potential novel uses of JAK inhibitors, focusing on [...] Read more.
Background: Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors represent a novel class of oral therapies showing efficacy in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), challenging conventional treatment paradigms. Summary: This review provides an overview of the potential novel uses of JAK inhibitors, focusing on their current approved indications and exploring possibilities beyond these indications. Tofacitinib and filgotinib are approved for UC, while upadacitinib is approved for both UC and CD. Additionally, their potential in acute severe UC, as steroid alternatives, and in managing fistulizing CD or extraintestinal manifestations are discussed. Key Message: JAK inhibitors play an important role in IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) treatment; however, clinicians must balance their promising efficacy with safety concerns. Individualized care and vigilance are essential for optimizing therapeutic benefits while mitigating potential adverse effects. Further research is necessary to clarify their efficacy, safety, and potential applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1643 KiB  
Review
Cell-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury: Promises and Trajectories
by Karl J. Habashy, Saad Omais, Benedikt Haupt, Adam M. Sonabend and Christopher S. Ahuja
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 161-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020011 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a debilitating condition that poses a significant public health concern. Historically linked to motor vehicle accidents, the epidemiology of TBI has evolved. Falls now emerge as the predominant cause, particularly among older adults. Sport-related TBIs have also garnered [...] Read more.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a debilitating condition that poses a significant public health concern. Historically linked to motor vehicle accidents, the epidemiology of TBI has evolved. Falls now emerge as the predominant cause, particularly among older adults. Sport-related TBIs have also garnered increased attention due to concerns regarding long-term neurological sequelae. To date, therapeutic interventions remain limited and have yet to yield substantial clinical benefits. Cell-based therapies offer promising avenues for neural repair and regeneration: endogenous stem cell therapies capitalize on endogenous pools that can be triggered by the injury and further enhanced by therapeutic approaches. In contrast, exogenous cell therapies provide an exogenous source of cells. However, challenges such as age-related decline in neurogenesis, age-related inflammation, and the heterogeneity of TBI present significant hurdles to overcome. Moreover, translating stem cell research from the laboratory to clinical applications necessitates the adherence to good manufacturing practice standards, which presents distinct obstacles. Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach, including careful patient selection in clinical trials, appropriate experimental models, and the optimization of therapeutic techniques. Ultimately, a combination of strategies is likely to yield the most promising outcomes in the pursuit of effective TBI therapies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1788 KiB  
Review
Gene Therapy for Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, and Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The Old Concepts and the New Era
by Nikolaos Evangelidis and Paschalis Evangelidis
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 143-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020010 - 19 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of mortality in the 21st century. Hypertension, vessel atherosclerosis, and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are responsible for increased mortality and morbidity in patients. Therapies for cardiovascular disease are based on drug treatment options, but in the era of [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of mortality in the 21st century. Hypertension, vessel atherosclerosis, and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are responsible for increased mortality and morbidity in patients. Therapies for cardiovascular disease are based on drug treatment options, but in the era of precision medicine, personalized treatments are being developed. Studies have shown that these conditions have a strong genetic background, creating an opportunity for the implementation of gene therapy for these diseases. Currently, gene therapy is not widely used in clinical practice. Recent advances in this research field are making gene therapy a very promising preventive and therapeutic tool for cardiovascular disease. Essential hypertension’s (EH) pathophysiology is mostly based on the activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), natriuretic peptide production, and endothelial dysfunction. Plasmid DNA and viral vectors can be used, targeting the main mechanisms in the pathogenesis of EH. Many preclinical studies have been developed across the years, presenting a significant decrease in blood pressure. Nevertheless, no clinical studies have been developed studying the implementation of gene therapy in EH. Atherosclerotic damage is caused by monogenic diseases or is deteriorated by the activation of inflammation in the vessel wall. Gene therapy studies have been developed in the pre- and clinical phases targeting the lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism and the inflammation of the vessels. FH is a common inherited metabolic disease associated with high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Clinical trials of gene therapy have been developed and presented optimistic results. In this review, the challenges of gene therapy for cardiovascular disease are outlined. Nevertheless, more clinical trials are needed to be performed for the development of convenient and safe drug schemes for our patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 313 KiB  
Review
Tick-Borne Diseases—Still a Challenge: A Review
by Radina Andonova, Dzhaner Bashchobanov, Veronika Gadzhovska and Georgi Popov
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 130-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020009 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Tick-borne diseases account for a large proportion of vector-borne illnesses. They include, for example, a variety of infections caused by bacteria, spirochetes, viruses, rickettsiae, and protozoa. We aim to present a review that demonstrates the connection between the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and the [...] Read more.
Tick-borne diseases account for a large proportion of vector-borne illnesses. They include, for example, a variety of infections caused by bacteria, spirochetes, viruses, rickettsiae, and protozoa. We aim to present a review that demonstrates the connection between the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and the significance of certain emergency tick-borne diseases in humans and their clinical–epidemiological features. This review covers three diseases: anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. The emergence of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis is become more frequently diagnosed as the cause of human infections, as animal reservoirs and tick vectors have increased in numbers and humans have inhabited areas where reservoir and tick populations are high. They belong to the order Rickettsiales and the family Anaplasmataceae, and the clinical manifestations typically coexist. Furthermore, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical to the patient’s recovery. Similar to malaria, babesiosis causes hemolysis. It is spread by intraerythrocytic protozoa, and the parasitemia dictates how severe it can get. Left untreated, some patients might have a fatal outcome. The correct diagnosis can be difficult sometimes; that is why an in-depth knowledge of the diseases is required. Prevention, prompt diagnosis, and treatment of these tick-borne diseases depend on the understanding of their clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features. Full article
25 pages, 1536 KiB  
Review
Classification and Molecular Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and Their Molecular Mechanisms with the Receptor
by Yasunari Matsuzaka and Ryu Yashiro
Biologics 2024, 4(2), 105-129; https://doi.org/10.3390/biologics4020008 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are highly glycosylated proteins in which heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan sugar chain, is an acidic sugar chain consisting of a repeating disaccharide structure of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine is locally sulfated. Syndecan, one of the transmembrane HSPGs, functions as a [...] Read more.
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are highly glycosylated proteins in which heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan sugar chain, is an acidic sugar chain consisting of a repeating disaccharide structure of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine is locally sulfated. Syndecan, one of the transmembrane HSPGs, functions as a receptor that transmits signals from the extracellular microenvironment to the inside of the cell. In the vascular system, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, a major component of the glycocalyx, enable the binding of various plasma-derived molecules due to their diversity, epimerization of glycosaminoglycans chains, long chains, and sulfation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix serve as a reservoir for bioactive molecules such as chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. Aberrant expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, heparanase, and sulfatase is observed in many pathological conditions. Therefore, it can be applied to therapeutic strategies for a wide range of fields including Alzheimer’s disease, heart failure, cancer, organ transplants, diabetes, chronic inflammation, aging, and autoimmune diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop