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BioMed, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2021) – 6 articles

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14 pages, 710 KiB  
Review
Mast Cell Tryptase and Implications for SARS-CoV-2 Pathogenesis
by Negar Karimi, Solmaz Morovati, Lily Chan, Christina Napoleoni, Yeganeh Mehrani, Byram W. Bridle and Khalil Karimi
BioMed 2021, 1(2), 136-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed1020013 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4274
Abstract
Mast cells (MCs) are heterogenous innate leukocytes producing many inflammatory mediators during viral infections that can be protective or damaging to the host, as is seen in the infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the [...] Read more.
Mast cells (MCs) are heterogenous innate leukocytes producing many inflammatory mediators during viral infections that can be protective or damaging to the host, as is seen in the infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease that was first identified in 2019 (COVID-19). MCs can sense viruses by diverse mechanisms. They express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), known as the principal entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and tryptase that can promote SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tryptase is one of the most abundant serine proteases released by MCs during degranulation and is reported to have both beneficial and detrimental roles in respiratory diseases. Reviewed here are the potential roles of MC-derived tryptase during COVID-19, the implications it has in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, and the possibility of treating COVID-19 by targeting tryptase. Full article
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10 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
High Flow in the Storm. Early Administration of High-Flow Nasal Cannula in Patients with Severe Acute Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Due to Clinically Suspected COVID-19
by Sara Jimeno, Máximo Gómez, Paula Sol Ventura, Ángeles Calle, Elena Núñez, José María Castellano and Alejandro López-Escobar
BioMed 2021, 1(2), 126-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed1020012 - 3 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Background: The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has created a shortage of ICU beds and ventilators. The objective was to assess whether administration of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 averted mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: Prospective observational [...] Read more.
Background: The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has created a shortage of ICU beds and ventilators. The objective was to assess whether administration of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 averted mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: Prospective observational study performed at Hospital Universitario HM Puerta del Sur (Madrid). The protocol included early administration of HFNC in clinically suspected COVID-19 patients with progressive desaturation. Results: Twenty patients were started on respiratory support with HFNC. Hospital admission took place after a median of 7 days since symptom onset and clinical deterioration was apparent at 9 days after symptom onset. Anti-inflammatory treatment with methylprednisolone and tocilizumab was initiated at 9 days (6.5–12), followed by HFNC at 9.5 days (7–12). HFNC was maintained for an average of 4.5 days (2.8–6.3), was successful in eighteen patients (90%), as defined by not needing invasive MV, and failed in two cases (10%) resulting in death. Since HFNC was implemented, there has been a decrease in the number of patients admitted to the ICU and treated with MV for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. Conclusions: HFNC administration may represent a viable therapeutic option for patients in the early stages of severe respiratory failure due to clinically suspected COVID-19. Full article
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12 pages, 1734 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Prognosis and Mortality Risk Predictions from Symptoms: A Cloud-Based Smartphone Application
by Ocean Monjur, Rahat Bin Preo, Abdullah Bin Shams, Md. Mohsin Sarker Raihan and Fariha Fairoz
BioMed 2021, 1(2), 114-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed1020011 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3534
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic overwhelmed many countries and their healthcare systems. Shortage of testing kits and Intensive-Care-Unit (ICU) beds for critical patients have become a norm in most developing countries. This has prompted the need to rapidly identify the COVID-19 patients to stop the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic overwhelmed many countries and their healthcare systems. Shortage of testing kits and Intensive-Care-Unit (ICU) beds for critical patients have become a norm in most developing countries. This has prompted the need to rapidly identify the COVID-19 patients to stop the spread of the virus and also to find critical patients. The latter is imperative for determining the state of critically ill patients as quickly as possible. This will lower the number of deaths from the infection. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based smartphone application for the early prognosis of COVID-19 infected patients and also predict their mortality risk using their symptoms. Moreover, we heuristically identified the most important symptoms necessary for making such predictions. We have successfully reduced the number of features by almost half for the prognosis and by more than a third for forecasting the mortality risk, compared to the contemporary studies. The application makes the real-time analysis using machine learning models, designed and stored in the cloud. Our machine learning model demonstrates an accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score of 97.72%, 100%, 95.55%, and 97.70%, respectively, in identifying the COVID-19 infected patients and with an accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score of 90.83%, 88.47%, 92.94%, and 90.65%, respectively, in forecasting the mortality risk from the infection. The real-time cloud-based approach yields faster responses, which is critical in the time of pandemic for mitigating the infection spread and aiding in the efficient management of the limited ICU resources. Full article
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2 pages, 158 KiB  
Editorial
BioMed: Let’s Bring Together What Belongs Together
by Wolfgang F. Graier
BioMed 2021, 1(2), 112-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed1020010 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1937
Abstract
When I was contacted by MDPI to serve as inaugurating Editor-in-Chief, I was skeptical because I recalled my spam-packed email inbox that is flooded daily by introductions of new journals with groovy names praising their highest scientific objectives and goals [...] Full article
13 pages, 807 KiB  
Review
The Rationale for the Automation of a New Diagnostic Thermography Protocol to Confirm a Chronic-Low-Back-Pain Subtype Related to Nociplastic Pain
by Elzbieta Skorupska and Tomasz Dybek
BioMed 2021, 1(2), 99-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed1020009 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
Gluteal syndrome (GS), a new low-back-pain subtype mimicking sciatica, has been included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Low back pain is a symptom, not a disease, and the main problem associated with it is pain complexity. A [...] Read more.
Gluteal syndrome (GS), a new low-back-pain subtype mimicking sciatica, has been included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Low back pain is a symptom, not a disease, and the main problem associated with it is pain complexity. A plausible pain generator of gluteal syndrome is the central sensitization process and the therapeutic target area, which are trigger points located within the gluteal muscles. It has been hypothesized that dysregulated immune and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) are involved in central sensitization development. Changes in ANS regulation, mainly through the sympathetic branch, provoke nociceptor activation indirectly by a vasoconstriction–vasodilatation imbalance, or directly by sympathetic–nociceptor activation resulting in widespread pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. The minimally invasive procedure (MIP) uses thermography to confirm a completely new biological phenomenon, which suggests a pathological autonomic response to noxious stimuli and can possibly become an objective marker of some nociplastic pain subtypes related to trigger points. This review provides the biological and technical rationale for the automation of the MIP—a possible future diagnostic tool for an objective gluteal syndrome confirmation. Full article
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5 pages, 509 KiB  
Case Report
Plasma Renin Concentration in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients
by Gabriele Melegari, Lucia Veronesi, Jessica Maccieri, Francesco Ponzetta, Suela Osmenaj and Alberto Barbieri
BioMed 2021, 1(2), 94-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed1020008 - 7 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Investigations of plasma renin concentration as a marker of organ perfusion in several intensive care settings have shown a significant correlation between its increase and a lack of perfusion in critical tissues, especially in septic patients. Castillo et al. proposed that activation of [...] Read more.
Investigations of plasma renin concentration as a marker of organ perfusion in several intensive care settings have shown a significant correlation between its increase and a lack of perfusion in critical tissues, especially in septic patients. Castillo et al. proposed that activation of the non-canonical pathway of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system could improve cardiovascular homeostasis under COVID-19. During the first wave of COVID-19, we preliminarily enrolled a small cohort of subjects admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Their plasma renin value was measured in the first 24 h (T0), in the following 72 h (T1), and after one week (T2). In eight patients, we observed a higher plasma renin concentration—patients with difficulty weaning and in non-survivors. This is a preliminary observation. The variation of plasma renin levels in a septic condition is known, but settings such as COVID-19 infection have recently been investigated, showing a correlation with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor expression and functionality; in the near future, it will be interesting to have more data about its variation and value in COVID-19 patients. Full article
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