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Forensic Analysis of COVID-19 Data from 198 Countries Two Years after the Pandemic Outbreak

1
Department of Business, Design and Technology, Macromedia University of Applied Sciences, 20095 Hamburg, Germany
2
Sydney Medical School, Nepean Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2747, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guglielmo Campus
COVID 2022, 2(4), 472-484; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2040034
Received: 31 January 2022 / Revised: 25 February 2022 / Accepted: 22 March 2022 / Published: 30 March 2022
The availability of accurate information has proved fundamental to managing health crises. This research examined pandemic data provided by 198 countries worldwide two years after the outbreak of the deadly Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. We compiled and reevaluated the consistency of daily COVID-19 infections with Benford’s Law. It is commonly accepted that the distribution of the leading digits of pandemic data should conform to Newcomb-Benford’s expected frequencies. Consistency with the law of leading digits might be an indicator of data reliability. Our analysis shows that most countries have disseminated partially reliable data over 24 months. The United States, Israel, and Spain spread the most consistent COVID-19 data with the law. In line with previous findings, Belarus, Iraq, Iran, Russia, Pakistan, and Chile published questionable epidemic data. Against this trend, 45 percent of countries worldwide appeared to demonstrate significant BL conformity. Our measures of Benfordness were moderately correlated with the Johns Hopkins Global Health Security Index, suggesting that the conformity to Benford’s law may also depend on national health care policies and practices. Our findings might be of particular importance to policymakers and researchers around the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; forensic; Benford’s law; pandemic; public health COVID-19; forensic; Benford’s law; pandemic; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farhadi, N.; Lahooti, H. Forensic Analysis of COVID-19 Data from 198 Countries Two Years after the Pandemic Outbreak. COVID 2022, 2, 472-484. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2040034

AMA Style

Farhadi N, Lahooti H. Forensic Analysis of COVID-19 Data from 198 Countries Two Years after the Pandemic Outbreak. COVID. 2022; 2(4):472-484. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2040034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farhadi, Noah, and Hooshang Lahooti. 2022. "Forensic Analysis of COVID-19 Data from 198 Countries Two Years after the Pandemic Outbreak" COVID 2, no. 4: 472-484. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2040034

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