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Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status

1
Pulmonary and Critical Care, St Francis Hospital-Trinity Health of New England, Hartford, CT 06105, USA
2
Department of Biology, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106, USA
3
Neuroscience Program, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dora Marinova
COVID 2022, 2(1), 76-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2010006
Received: 23 December 2021 / Revised: 7 January 2022 / Accepted: 11 January 2022 / Published: 14 January 2022
Background: Observational studies of the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection generally focus on individual symptoms rather than health status. Objective: Longitudinal assessment of general health status following COVID-19 infection. Design: Observational study, with data collected from two telephone surveys at 32 ± 10 and 89 ± 25 days after discharge from the hospital or emergency department (ED) for a COVID-19 infection. Medicaid or no insurance was our marker of low socioeconomic status (SES). Acute disease severity was determined by summing 10 severity markers (yes-no) from the health encounter. Baseline comorbidity was a modified Charlson Index. Participants: 40 patients. Mean age was 54 ± 15 years, 50% were female, and 40% had low socioeconomic status. Main Measures: (1) the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20); (2) Dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council); (3) Psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire for Anxiety and Depression); (4) Cognitive function (Cognitive Change Questionnaire); (5) Fatigue (Short Fatigue Questionnaire); (6) A 10-item review of systems (ROS) questionnaire. Key Results: Percentages with abnormal symptoms at the first and second surveys were (respectively): Dyspnea (40, 33), Fatigue (53, 50), Anxiety (33, 18), Depression (20, 10), PHQ-4 Composite (25, 13), and Cognitive (18, 10). Mean scores on the SF-20 subscales, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Health Perception, Mental Health, and Pain were numerically lower than means from a published study of elderly outpatients. With the exception of Pain, all SF-20 subscale scores improved significantly by the second survey. In multivariable analyses, dyspnea was predictive of impairment in all SF-20 subscales at the second survey. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection causes persistent abnormality across multiple patient-reported outcome areas, including health status. The persistence of impairment in each health status component is influenced by baseline dyspnea. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; health status; health-related quality of life; dyspnea; long-haul COVID; Post-COVID-19 Condition COVID-19; health status; health-related quality of life; dyspnea; long-haul COVID; Post-COVID-19 Condition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaur, A.; Michalopoulos, C.; Carpe, S.; Congrete, S.; Shahzad, H.; Reardon, J.; Wakefield, D.; Swart, C.; ZuWallack, R. Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status. COVID 2022, 2, 76-86. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2010006

AMA Style

Kaur A, Michalopoulos C, Carpe S, Congrete S, Shahzad H, Reardon J, Wakefield D, Swart C, ZuWallack R. Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status. COVID. 2022; 2(1):76-86. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaur, Antarpreet, Chloe Michalopoulos, Suzanne Carpe, Soontharee Congrete, Hira Shahzad, Jane Reardon, Dorothy Wakefield, Charles Swart, and Richard ZuWallack. 2022. "Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status" COVID 2, no. 1: 76-86. https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2010006

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