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Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status

Pulmonary and Critical Care, St Francis Hospital-Trinity Health of New England, Hartford, CT 06105, USA
Department of Biology, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106, USA
Neuroscience Program, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dora Marinova
COVID 2022, 2(1), 76-86;
Received: 23 December 2021 / Revised: 7 January 2022 / Accepted: 11 January 2022 / Published: 14 January 2022
Background: Observational studies of the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection generally focus on individual symptoms rather than health status. Objective: Longitudinal assessment of general health status following COVID-19 infection. Design: Observational study, with data collected from two telephone surveys at 32 ± 10 and 89 ± 25 days after discharge from the hospital or emergency department (ED) for a COVID-19 infection. Medicaid or no insurance was our marker of low socioeconomic status (SES). Acute disease severity was determined by summing 10 severity markers (yes-no) from the health encounter. Baseline comorbidity was a modified Charlson Index. Participants: 40 patients. Mean age was 54 ± 15 years, 50% were female, and 40% had low socioeconomic status. Main Measures: (1) the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20); (2) Dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council); (3) Psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire for Anxiety and Depression); (4) Cognitive function (Cognitive Change Questionnaire); (5) Fatigue (Short Fatigue Questionnaire); (6) A 10-item review of systems (ROS) questionnaire. Key Results: Percentages with abnormal symptoms at the first and second surveys were (respectively): Dyspnea (40, 33), Fatigue (53, 50), Anxiety (33, 18), Depression (20, 10), PHQ-4 Composite (25, 13), and Cognitive (18, 10). Mean scores on the SF-20 subscales, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Health Perception, Mental Health, and Pain were numerically lower than means from a published study of elderly outpatients. With the exception of Pain, all SF-20 subscale scores improved significantly by the second survey. In multivariable analyses, dyspnea was predictive of impairment in all SF-20 subscales at the second survey. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection causes persistent abnormality across multiple patient-reported outcome areas, including health status. The persistence of impairment in each health status component is influenced by baseline dyspnea. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; health status; health-related quality of life; dyspnea; long-haul COVID; Post-COVID-19 Condition COVID-19; health status; health-related quality of life; dyspnea; long-haul COVID; Post-COVID-19 Condition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaur, A.; Michalopoulos, C.; Carpe, S.; Congrete, S.; Shahzad, H.; Reardon, J.; Wakefield, D.; Swart, C.; ZuWallack, R. Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status. COVID 2022, 2, 76-86.

AMA Style

Kaur A, Michalopoulos C, Carpe S, Congrete S, Shahzad H, Reardon J, Wakefield D, Swart C, ZuWallack R. Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status. COVID. 2022; 2(1):76-86.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaur, Antarpreet, Chloe Michalopoulos, Suzanne Carpe, Soontharee Congrete, Hira Shahzad, Jane Reardon, Dorothy Wakefield, Charles Swart, and Richard ZuWallack. 2022. "Post-COVID-19 Condition and Health Status" COVID 2, no. 1: 76-86.

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