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Article

Chemical Composition of Apples Cultivated in Norway

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1433 Aas, Norway
2
INRAE, UR1268 BIA (Biopolymers, Interactions & Assemblies), PRP Group (Polyphenols, Reactivity, Processes), F-35653 Le Rheu, France
3
UMT ACTIA Nova2Cidre, F-35653 Le Rheu, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arnon Dag
Crops 2021, 1(1), 8-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/crops1010003
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
The composition of apples varies with both cultivar and horticultural practice. Knowledge about the chemical composition of different cultivars in particular sugars, organic acids, nitrogen compounds and polyphenols is essential, since they are directly related to the progress of fermentation monitoring and the organoleptic qualities of produced ciders. Fifteen apple cultivars grown in two locations in Norway were investigated for their chemical composition, including polyphenol profiles. The nitrogen content varied from 43.2 to 171.4 mg N/L between the cultivars, and the sum of free amino acids varied from 42.4 to 924.5 mg/kg. Asparagine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were the dominating amino acids. Flavanols, consisting of catechins and procyanidins, were the dominating polyphenols, followed by hydroxycinnamic acids. The cultivar Bramley Seedling was highest in the sum of polyphenols by HPLC (1838 mg/L) and relatively low in nitrogen content (75 mg N/L). Summerred was lowest in the sum of polyphenols (87 mg/L) and highest in nitrogen (171.4 mg N/L). Sugar content, measured as density in the juice, varied between 1034 and 1060 g/L. Using cider categorization of apples, ’Bramley Seedling’ would be defined as sharp, while the others are sweet cultivars. View Full-Text
Keywords: apples; density; polyphenols; nitrogen; amino acids; TP folin apples; density; polyphenols; nitrogen; amino acids; TP folin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wicklund, T.; Guyot, S.; Le Quéré, J.-M. Chemical Composition of Apples Cultivated in Norway. Crops 2021, 1, 8-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/crops1010003

AMA Style

Wicklund T, Guyot S, Le Quéré J-M. Chemical Composition of Apples Cultivated in Norway. Crops. 2021; 1(1):8-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/crops1010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wicklund, Trude, Sylvain Guyot, and Jean-Michel Le Quéré. 2021. "Chemical Composition of Apples Cultivated in Norway" Crops 1, no. 1: 8-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/crops1010003

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