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Constr. Mater., Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2021) – 3 articles

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12 pages, 2311 KiB  
Article
Environmental Protection with HDPE Geomembranes in Mining Facility Constructions
by Fernando Luiz Lavoie, Marcelo Kobelnik, Clever Aparecido Valentin, Érica Fernanda da Silva Tirelli, Maria de Lurdes Lopes and Jefferson Lins da Silva
Constr. Mater. 2021, 1(2), 122-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater1020009 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 4700
Abstract
The present work evaluated two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes exhumed from mining facility constructions in Brazil. The MIN sample was exhumed from a pond for water use for the iron ore process after 7.92 years of exposure. The MIN2 sample was exhumed from [...] Read more.
The present work evaluated two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes exhumed from mining facility constructions in Brazil. The MIN sample was exhumed from a pond for water use for the iron ore process after 7.92 years of exposure. The MIN2 sample was exhumed from a spillway channel of a ferronickel tailing dam after 10.08 years of service. The physical evaluations showed high depletion for antioxidants that work in the temperature range of 200 °C. The samples presented brittle tensile behavior and had similar behaviors between stress cracking and tensile. Low tensile elongation values and low-stress crack resistance were noted. The MIN2 sample presented a higher melt flow index (MFI) value and lower stress crack resistance. Thermogravimetric curves (TG) under synthetic air purge gas evaluation showed that both samples presented a similar behavior during the evaluation but had several mass losses. The results showed that exothermic and endothermic events occurred with loss of mass and showed no combustion events in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve evaluation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed no changes in the samples’ behavior. Thus, the results of tensile, stress cracking, and viscosity properties can demonstrate that changes in polymer structure occurred after field exposures. Full article
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17 pages, 6281 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Recycled Plaster Composition Determined by X-ray Powder Diffraction and Thermogravimetric Analyses
by Heloísa Cristina Fernandes Cordon, Mariana Silva Ferreira and Fabio Furlan Ferreira
Constr. Mater. 2021, 1(2), 105-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater1020008 - 12 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Plaster is primarily used as a building material obtained by the calcination of gypsum. Its rapid setting time (time for the mixture to solidify) and the low quality of labor generate a large amount of nonused material. Due to its solubility in water, [...] Read more.
Plaster is primarily used as a building material obtained by the calcination of gypsum. Its rapid setting time (time for the mixture to solidify) and the low quality of labor generate a large amount of nonused material. Due to its solubility in water, wasted gypsum cannot be disposed of in the environment, and its recycling process is encouraged. In this work, quantitative phase analyses (QPA) using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data and the Rietveld method were carried out to determine the amounts of each compound present in commercial, hydrated, and laboratory-recycled plasters, and the results compared with those obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was inferred that the Rietveld method associated with XRPD data is quite efficient since it identifies compounds not seen in the TGA. Furthermore, the amount of water used in the preparation of hydrated samples influences the proper hydration of the material and, consequently, the recycled composition of the samples. Full article
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10 pages, 3464 KiB  
Article
A Decommissioned Wind Blade as a Second-Life Construction Material for a Transmission Pole
by Ammar A. Alshannaq, Lawrence C. Bank, David W. Scott and Russell Gentry
Constr. Mater. 2021, 1(2), 95-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater1020007 - 7 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3812
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the concept of adaptive repurposing of a portion of a decommissioned Clipper C96 wind turbine blade as a pole in a power transmission line application. The current research program is aimed at creating a path towards sustainable repurposing of wind [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates the concept of adaptive repurposing of a portion of a decommissioned Clipper C96 wind turbine blade as a pole in a power transmission line application. The current research program is aimed at creating a path towards sustainable repurposing of wind turbine blades after they are removed from service. The present work includes modelling and analysis of expected load cases as prescribed in ASCE 74 and NESC using simplified boundary conditions for tangent pole applications. Load cases involving extreme wind, concurrent ice and wind, extreme ice, differential ice, broken conductor, and broken shield have been analyzed and governing load cases for bending, shear, and torsion have been examined. Relative stiffnesses of different parts forming the wind blade’s cross section (i.e., shell, web, and spar cap) are determined. The corresponding stresses associated with each part under the governing loads are compared to allowable strength values which are determined from composite laminate theory and modelling of the known laminate structure of the E-Glass FRP material. Stresses and deflections obtained are compared with governing reliability-based design criteria and code requirements. The results of the structural analysis indicate that the wind blade can resist the expected loads with reasonable safety factors and that the expected deflections are within permissible limits. Recommendations are provided for detailing and modification of the wind blade for a power pole application in which crossarm and davit connections are highlighted, and foundation details are emphasized. Full article
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