Next Article in Journal
Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Enteric Protists in Asymptomatic Schoolchildren and Their Legal Guardians in Madrid, Spain
Previous Article in Journal
Lice, Flies, Mites, and Ticks on Raptors (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in Rescue Centers in Central Italy
Article

Environmental Correlates of Prevalence of an Intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan Infecting Caribbean Damselfish

1
Master of Marine and Environmental Science Program, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, VI 00802, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, VI 00802, USA
3
Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
4
Department of Biological Sciences, and Environmental Sciences Program, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72467, USA
5
Water Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edit Eszterbauer
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 69-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia1020009
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 23 April 2021 / Published: 2 May 2021
Parasites are an integral part of coral reef ecosystems due to their influences on population dynamics, biodiversity, community structure, and food web connectivity. The Phylum Apicomplexa contains ubiquitous animal associates including the causative agents of globally important human diseases such as malaria and cryptosporidiosis. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the biology, ecology, or distribution of these microorganisms in natural animal populations. In the US Virgin Islands, the dusky damselfish (Stegastes adustus) had a high but variable incidence of a Haemohormidium-like blood apicomplexan among 30 sites sampled. Microscopic analyses of blood smears allowed us to group these fish as infected, having low intensity infections, or uninfected. Regression analyses detected no significant differences in the condition indices (expressed as length–mass ratio). However, infection was clearly associated with potentially extremely high leukocyte counts among infected S. adustus that were not seen in uninfected fish. These results suggested the potential for some impact on the host. Linear mixed effects models indicated that S. adustus population density and meridional flow velocity were the main predictors of apicomplexan prevalence, with presence of other Stegastes species, population distance from watershed, zonal flow velocity, the complexity of the surrounding habitat, and season not showing any significant relationship with fish infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: apicomplexan; damselfish; Caribbean apicomplexan; damselfish; Caribbean
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Halliday-Isaac, A.K.; Robinson, J.B.; Cruz-Rivera, E.; Campbell, A.G.; Sikkel, P.C. Environmental Correlates of Prevalence of an Intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan Infecting Caribbean Damselfish. Parasitologia 2021, 1, 69-82. https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia1020009

AMA Style

Halliday-Isaac AK, Robinson JB, Cruz-Rivera E, Campbell AG, Sikkel PC. Environmental Correlates of Prevalence of an Intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan Infecting Caribbean Damselfish. Parasitologia. 2021; 1(2):69-82. https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia1020009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Halliday-Isaac, Akacia K., Jennilee B. Robinson, Edwin Cruz-Rivera, Andrew G. Campbell, and Paul C. Sikkel 2021. "Environmental Correlates of Prevalence of an Intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan Infecting Caribbean Damselfish" Parasitologia 1, no. 2: 69-82. https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia1020009

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop