Transitions in Journalism—Toward a Semantic-Oriented Technological Framework
2. Literature Review
2.1. The Emergence of the Semantic Web
2.2. Semantic Web Components
- The Universal Code (Unicode) is the global character encoding system with more than 137,929 characters (Unicode Consortium 2019) and it is used to represent and manipulate text in many languages.
- The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a globally scoped character string that is used to identify digital resources or concepts in the web (Berners-Lee et al. 2005).
- The Extensive Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that models every piece of information. It is used to define a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human and machine-readable (Bray et al. 2008). Additionally, XML schema is the vocabulary that is used to describe and verify elements inside an XML document and show the interrelationship between them and their complementary attributes (W3C 2015).
- The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a set of specifications used to create statements for conceptual descriptions of the information implemented in web resources. Moreover, an RDF schema is a data-modelling vocabulary for RDF data and these are used to describe groups of resources and the relationships between them through a hierarchical system of classes and properties (Decker et al. 2000).
- The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of representation languages that provides terminological knowledge, bringing reasoning power to the SW. It provides infrastructure to RDF statements by describing concepts, characteristics of properties, constraints, and categories of things and relationships (W3C 2012). An ontology is an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization and is used for integrating heterogeneous databases, enabling interoperability among disparate systems and specifying interfaces to independent, knowledge-based services (Gruber 1995).
- Lastly, SPARQLE Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) is a semantic query language for databases and is used to retrieve data that follows the RDF specifications (W3C SPARQL Working Group 2013).
2.3. Contextualize Journalism in the Semantic Web
2.4. Semantic Web Standards for the Media Industry
- News Industry Text Format (NITF) is a solution for sharing news. Through the use of XML, the standard defines the content and structure of news articles in order to make them more searchable and useful. NITF is the means for identifying and describing numerous news characteristics, such as the who, what, when, where and why of an instance. Currently, many news agencies/companies publish NITF documents as Table 1 showcases.
- Photo metadata is a global standard that is used to provide general information regarding a picture (i.e., the format, copyrights, location, etc.), to be readable by both machines and humans.
- Video Metadata Hub is a newly introduced standard, and it serves as a recommendation, comprising widely used properties of a video (i.e., the name, data type, etc.), for shared video management.
- Media Topics, as recently updated, is a vocabulary with over 1200 terms used for the classification of media items based on text categorization.
- NewsML-G2 is the most common standard for managing and exchanging individual and packages of news items in various formats (i.e., text, images, graphic, video, and audio) between various news outlets (i.e., newspapers, TV stations, and news aggregators). It provides rich metadata in XML format in order to facilitate the convergence with the SW, in terms of rich functionality, ease of use, compactness, and compatibility. Furthermore, the EventsML-G2 and SportsML standards are encountered under NewsML-G2, and these are used for the interchange of events and sports data (i.e., facts about an event, statistics, etc.), respectively. Some of the media organizations that are currently using NewsML-G2, EventsML-G2, and SportsML standards are listed in Table 2.
- RightsML standard is realized through the Rights Expression Languages. These are machine-readable languages determining the various restrictions/permissions for the use of a digital media item (i.e., an image) when it is made available within the media industry (i.e., photo agencies).
- rNews is a standard for embedding machine-readable metadata in online news. As news publishers are using their web pages to disseminate information, by using semantic markup to annotate news-specific metadata they render their web page documents and the content of their databases more recoverable by machines and more visible to the search, social, and aggregation ecosystem. The New York Times (https://www.nytimes.com/) and the Austria Presse Agentur (APA) (https://www.ots.at/) are currently using this standard.
3. Semantic Journalism Identity
3.1. Definition of Semantic Journalism
3.2. Characteristics of Semantic Journalism
3.3. Semantic Journalism Production Processes
3.4. Semantic Journalism Publication Practices
4. Research Challenges and Elements of Discussion
5. Concluding Remarks and Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
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|1||Agence France Presse (AFP)||International News Agency||https://www.afp.com/|
|2||Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA)||Italy’s largest newswire||https://www.ansa.it/|
|3||Associated Press (AP) Digital||Division of The Associated Press||http://www.apdigitalnews.com/|
|4||The Business Journals||Division of American City Business Journals||https://www.bizjournals.com/|
|5||Stibo DX (formerly known as CCI Europe)||Software company||https://www.stibodx.com/|
|6||Deutsche Presse-Agentur (dpa)||German News Agency||https://www.dpa.com/de/|
|7||Inquirer Group of Companies (INQ7 Interactive)||Mass media conglomerate||http://www.inq7.net/|
|8||AB Kvällstidningen Expressen||Swedish portal||https://www.expressen.se/|
|9||LexisNexis||Corporation for computer-assisted solutions (i.e., archive database for news)||https://www.lexisnexis.com/en-us/gateway.page|
|10||netPR||Polish Press Agency||https://netpr.pl/|
|11||The New York Times||American newspaper||https://www.nytimes.com/|
|12||Newsmax Medien GmbH||American news media organization||https://www.newsmax.com/|
|13||Norsk Telegrambyrå (NTB)||Norwegian News Agency||https://www.ntb.no/|
|14||pressetext Nachrichtenagentur (pte)||Multimedia news agency||https://www.pressetext.com/|
|15||Tidningarnas Telgrambyrå (TT)||Swedish newswire||https://tt.se/|
|16||Tiscali GmbH||Munich-based portal||https://www.tiscali.com/|
|1||All Headline News (AHN)||Online news wire service||https://allheadlinenews.com/|
|2||Associated Press (AP)||News agency||https://www.ap.org/en-gb/|
|3||European Broadcasting Union (EBU)||Alliance of public service media organizations||https://www.ebu.ch/home|
|4||Fourth Estate||Cooperative Public-benefit corporation||https://www.fourthestate.org/|
|5||Deutsche Presse-Agentur GmbH (dpa)||German news agency||https://www.dpa.com/de/|
|6||TT Nyhetsbyrån||News Agency||https://tt.se/|
|8||AP mobile||Multimedia News portal||https://apnews.com/Mobile|
|9||Austria Presse Agentur: Startseite (APA)||National News Agency||https://www.apa.at/Site/index.de.html|
|10||Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN)||Broadcast Network||https://www.espn.com/|
|11||PA Media||Multimedia News Agency||https://pa.media/|
|13||Yahoo! Sports||News website||https://sports.yahoo.com/|
|1||2010 World Cup||BBC Future Media||http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/world_cup_2010/default.stm|
|2||London’s Olympic 2012||BBC Future Media||https://www.bbc.com/sport/olympics/2012|
|3||Sport BBC||BBC Future Media||https://www.bbc.com/sport|
|4||News on the Web (NOW)||Ontotext Platform||https://now.ontotext.com/#channel?uri=Business&type=channel|
|5||The Next Web (TNW)||Publisher||https://thenextweb.com/about/|
|7||Orbis Terra Media||Digital-media platform||https://www.orbisterramedia.com/|
|8||Press Association (PA)||Multimedia News Agency||https://pa.media/|
|9||Newz||Dutch tabloid-sized newspaper||https://www.newz.nl/|
|11||Publicis Pixelpark||Advertising Service Provider||https://www.digitaspixelpark.com/|
|12||Unidad Editorial||Spanish Media Group||http://www.unidadeditorial.com/|
|1||Agencia EFE - Spanish news agency||News Engine Web Services (NEWS) ontology||https://www.efe.com/efe/espana/1|
|2||Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA)—Italian News Agency||News Engine Web Services (NEWS) ontology||https://www.ansa.it/|
|3||The New York Times||OpenLink New York Times ontology||https://bit.ly/398mU0F & https://www.openlinksw.com/customer-snapshot/|
|4||British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)||BBC Ontologies||https://www.bbc.co.uk/ontologies|
|1||Australian Associated Press (AAP)||Superdesk||https://www.superdesk.org/|
|3||Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA) – Italian News Agency|
|4||Suomen Tietotoimisto (STT) - Finnish News Agency|
|5||Norsk Telegrambyrå (NTB) – Norwegian News Agency|
|6||Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF) - German public-service television broadcaster||Condat AG||https://en.condat.de/|
|7||rbb Fernsehen (RBB) - German free-to-air television channel|
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Panagiotidis, K.; Veglis, A. Transitions in Journalism—Toward a Semantic-Oriented Technological Framework. Journal. Media 2020, 1, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia1010001
Panagiotidis K, Veglis A. Transitions in Journalism—Toward a Semantic-Oriented Technological Framework. Journalism and Media. 2020; 1(1):1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia1010001Chicago/Turabian Style
Panagiotidis, Kosmas, and Andreas Veglis. 2020. "Transitions in Journalism—Toward a Semantic-Oriented Technological Framework" Journalism and Media 1, no. 1: 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia1010001