Next Article in Journal
Comparison of DSOGI-Based PLL for Phase Estimation in Three-Phase Weak Grids
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization of 1D/3D Electro-Thermal Model for Liquid-Cooled Lithium-Ion Capacitor Module in High Power Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Voltage and Frequency Control of Balanced/Unbalanced Distribution System Using the SMES System in the Presence of Wind Energy
Article

Electric Vehicles as a Flexibility Provider: Optimal Charging Schedules to Improve the Quality of Charging Service

1
Institute of Energy Systems, Energy Efficiency and Energy Economics, TU Dortmund University, Emil-Figge-Street 76, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
2
Unit of Electrical Engineering, Tampere University, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, 33720 Tampere, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fred Barez
Electricity 2021, 2(3), 225-243; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030014
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Energy Storage Systems)
The sub-aggregation of electric vehicles provides significant potential to power systems in the form of ancillary services. This means with smart charging it is possible to shift loads from peak to off-peak hours. For the flexibility from privately owned electric vehicles to be offered to the electricity market, customer participation is crucial; however, the impacts of sub-aggregation on customers have not been studied thoroughly. In this paper, charging data covering over 80,000 real-world charging sessions from various commercial charging sites are introduced and the charging characteristics are analyzed. Importantly, a method for finding an optimal pattern for load reduction with the least impact on customers is presented. We suggest an optimal schedule for load reduction from the customer viewpoint at different types of charging sites, including public car parks, offices, residential sites, and shopping centers. The findings indicate that residential and office charging sites offer the greatest potential for load reduction with the least impact on customers. The most flexibility is available during peak charging hours, which on average are at 08:00 at car parks, 07:30 at office sites, 19:00 at residential sites, and 10:00 at shopping centers. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle charging; quality of charging service; flexibility; peak shaving electric vehicle charging; quality of charging service; flexibility; peak shaving
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rauma, K.; Funke, A.; Simolin, T.; Järventausta, P.; Rehtanz, C. Electric Vehicles as a Flexibility Provider: Optimal Charging Schedules to Improve the Quality of Charging Service. Electricity 2021, 2, 225-243. https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030014

AMA Style

Rauma K, Funke A, Simolin T, Järventausta P, Rehtanz C. Electric Vehicles as a Flexibility Provider: Optimal Charging Schedules to Improve the Quality of Charging Service. Electricity. 2021; 2(3):225-243. https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rauma, Kalle, Alexander Funke, Toni Simolin, Pertti Järventausta, and Christian Rehtanz. 2021. "Electric Vehicles as a Flexibility Provider: Optimal Charging Schedules to Improve the Quality of Charging Service" Electricity 2, no. 3: 225-243. https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity2030014

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop