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Proceeding Paper

The Reaction of 1,6-Diamino-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3,5-Dicarbonitriles with Certain Electrophilic Agents †

Alexei A. Dolganov
Alexandra R. Chikava
1 and
Victor V. Dotsenko
Department of Organic Chemistry and Technologies, Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya Str., Krasnodar 350040, Russia
ChemEx Lab, Vladimir Dal’ Lugansk National University, 20A/7 Molodezhny, Lugansk 291034, Russia
Department of Chemistry, North Caucasus Federal University, 1a Pushkin St., Stavropol 355009, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 27th International Electronic Conference on Synthetic Organic Chemistry (ECSOC-27), 15–30 November 2023; Available online:
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 8;
Published: 6 December 2023


The reaction of 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles, which are easily available through the reaction of cyanoacetohydrazide with arylmethylene malononitriles, with ninhydrin leads to the formation of novel dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines. Another active carbonyl compound, glyoxal, reacts with 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles under mild conditions to give functionalized 6-oxo-6H-pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazine-7,9-dicarbonitriles.

1. Introduction

1,6-Diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 1 were first prepared by Soto and colleagues in 1981 by treating cyanoacethydrazide 2 with 2 eq. arylmethylene malononitriles 3 in the presence of bases [1] (Scheme 1). The compounds 1 can also be synthesized by ternary cyclocondensation of corresponding aromatic aldehydes with malononitrile and hydrazide 2 generated in situ. The title compounds 1 are highly functionalized pyridine derivatives and are promising reagents useful for the preparation of nitrogen-bridged polyheterocyclic ensembles [2]. However, despite the presence of neighboring active amino groups, there are only a few reports on the reactions of 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles with electrophilic agents such as active carbonyls [2]. Hence, we decided to fill this gap by performing reactions of the title compounds with ninhydrin and glyoxal.

2. Results and Discussion

First, we prepared 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 1 according to the reported procedure [1]. As reported in the original paper of Soto and colleagues [1], pyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 1 can be isolated in high yields only when arylmethylene malononitriles 3 are taken in two-fold excess with respect to the starting hydrazide 2. So, the true oxidant needed to oxidize intermediate tetrahydropyridine species 4 (Scheme 1) is arylmethylene malononitrile 3, not air oxygen.
We found that, upon treatment of 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3,5-dicarbonitriles 1 with ninhydrin in boiling acetic acid, dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 5 were isolated in good yields (Scheme 2). The formation of spiro compounds 6 was not confirmed in the reaction.
When compounds 1 were treated with a small excess of aqueous glyoxal, 8-aryl-6-oxo-6H-pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazine-7,9-dicarbonitriles 7 were isolated as deep green colored solids easily soluble in common organic solvents such as EtOAc or acetone. The compounds 7 are examples of the poorly studied heterocyclic system of pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazine. Obviously, the reaction proceeds through the formation of the corresponding semi-aminals 8 with subsequent dehydration (Scheme 3).

3. Experiments

Preparation of Dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 5

A mixture of pyridines 1 (0.01 mol) and ninhydrin (0.01 mol) was dissolved in a small amount of AcOH (1–2 mL) and then was heated under reflux. The reaction was monitored by TLC (eluent—EtOAc or acetone, Sorbfil-A plates). After complete consumption of 1, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool and left to stand overnight. The brick-red solid was filtered off and washed with EtOH to give pure dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 5.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, methodology, V.V.D.; investigation, A.R.C.; writing—original draft preparation, A.A.D.; writing—review and editing, V.V.D.; supervision, V.V.D.; funding acquisition, V.V.D. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


The research was funded by RFBR and the administration of Krasnodar Territory, project number 20-43-235002.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data sharing is not applicable to this article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Ibrahim, M.A.; El-Gohary, N.M. Heterocyclization with Some Heterocyclic Diamines: Synthetic Approaches for Nitrogen Bridgehead Heterocyclic Systems. Heterocycles 2014, 89, 1125–1157. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Soto, J.L.; Seoane, C.; Zamorano, P.; Cuadrado, F.J. A convenient synthesis of N-amino-2-pyridones. Synthesis 1981, 1981, 529–530. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Scheme 1. Preparation of 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 1.
Scheme 1. Preparation of 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles 1.
Chemproc 14 00008 sch001
Scheme 2. The preparation of dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 5.
Scheme 2. The preparation of dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 5.
Chemproc 14 00008 sch002
Scheme 3. The preparation of pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 7 (R = Hal, MeO).
Scheme 3. The preparation of pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines 7 (R = Hal, MeO).
Chemproc 14 00008 sch003
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dolganov, A.A.; Chikava, A.R.; Dotsenko, V.V. The Reaction of 1,6-Diamino-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3,5-Dicarbonitriles with Certain Electrophilic Agents. Chem. Proc. 2023, 14, 8.

AMA Style

Dolganov AA, Chikava AR, Dotsenko VV. The Reaction of 1,6-Diamino-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3,5-Dicarbonitriles with Certain Electrophilic Agents. Chemistry Proceedings. 2023; 14(1):8.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dolganov, Alexei A., Alexandra R. Chikava, and Victor V. Dotsenko. 2023. "The Reaction of 1,6-Diamino-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3,5-Dicarbonitriles with Certain Electrophilic Agents" Chemistry Proceedings 14, no. 1: 8.

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