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Article

Strengthening Strategies for Existing Rammed Earth Walls Subjected to Out-of-Plane Loading

1
Department of Culture, Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs, Kawangjangsa, Thimphu 133, Bhutan
2
Graduate School of Design and Architecture, Nagoya City University, 2 Chome-1-10 Kitachikusa, Chikusa Ward, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0083, Japan
3
Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kagawa University; 2217-20 Hayashimachi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-0396, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
CivilEng 2020, 1(3), 229-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng1030014
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 24 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
The paper reports an experimental campaign to study the effectiveness of strengthening measures proposed for rammed earth (RE) wall in an out-of-plane direction. Two simple and feasible strengthening techniques were explored, namely, mesh-wrapped and timber-framed strengthening techniques. The test involved testing three full-scale U-shaped RE walls in an out-of-plane direction. The first specimen without any intervention served as the reference wall, while the two others were strengthened with two different strengthening methods. It was observed that both proposed strengthening techniques improved the load-carrying capacity of the wall and the maximum displacement and the energy absorption. The mesh-wrapped strengthening technique was found to be more effective than the timber-framed strengthening technique, which disrupted the visual aspects of the wall’s facade and needed proper anchoring to the foundation. View Full-Text
Keywords: rammed earth; pull-down test; strengthening; Bhutan rammed earth; pull-down test; strengthening; Bhutan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wangmo, P.; Shrestha, K.C.; Aoki, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Pema. Strengthening Strategies for Existing Rammed Earth Walls Subjected to Out-of-Plane Loading. CivilEng 2020, 1, 229-242. https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng1030014

AMA Style

Wangmo P, Shrestha KC, Aoki T, Miyamoto M, Pema. Strengthening Strategies for Existing Rammed Earth Walls Subjected to Out-of-Plane Loading. CivilEng. 2020; 1(3):229-242. https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng1030014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wangmo, Phuntsho, Kshitij C. Shrestha, Takayoshi Aoki, Mitsuhiro Miyamoto, and Pema. 2020. "Strengthening Strategies for Existing Rammed Earth Walls Subjected to Out-of-Plane Loading" CivilEng 1, no. 3: 229-242. https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng1030014

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