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NeuroSci, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 6 articles

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Review
Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol in Ischemic Brain Injury
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 305-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030022 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Cerebral ischemia represents the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in adults. This process results from decreasing cerebral blood flow levels as a result of the occlusion of a major cerebral artery. This restriction in blood supply generates low [...] Read more.
Cerebral ischemia represents the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in adults. This process results from decreasing cerebral blood flow levels as a result of the occlusion of a major cerebral artery. This restriction in blood supply generates low levels of oxygen and glucose, which leads to a decrease in the energy metabolism of the cell, producing inflammation, and finally, neurological deterioration. Currently, blood restoration of flow is the only effective approach as a therapy in terms of ischemic stroke. However, a significant number of patients still have a poor prognosis, probably owing to the increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the reperfusion of damaged tissue. Oxidative stress and inflammation can be avoided by modulating mitochondrial function and have been identified as potential targets for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. In recent years, the beneficial actions of flavonoids and polyphenols against cerebrovascular diseases have been extensively investigated. The use of resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to markedly decrease brain damage caused by ischemia in numerous studies. According to in vitro and in vivo experiments, there is growing evidence that RSV is involved in several pathways, including cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 regulation, JAK/ERK/STAT signaling pathway modulation, TLR4 signal transduction regulation, gut/brain axis modulation, GLUT3 up-regulation inhibition, neuronal autophagy activation, and de novo SUR1 expression inhibition. In this review, we summarize the recent outcomes based on the neuroprotective effect of RSV itself and RSV-loaded nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo models focusing on such mechanisms of action as well as describing the potential therapeutic strategies in which RSV plays an active role in cases of ischemic brain injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Neurosci 2021)
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Article
The Electromagnetic Will
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 291-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030021 - 29 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The conscious electromagnetic information (cemi) field theory proposes that the seat of consciousness is the brain’s electromagnetic (EM) field that integrates information from trillions of firing neurons. What we call free will is its output. The cemi theory also proposes that the brain [...] Read more.
The conscious electromagnetic information (cemi) field theory proposes that the seat of consciousness is the brain’s electromagnetic (EM) field that integrates information from trillions of firing neurons. What we call free will is its output. The cemi theory also proposes that the brain has two streams. Most actions are initiated by the first non-conscious stream that is composed of neurons that are insulated from EM field influences. These non-conscious involuntary actions are thereby invisible to our EM field-located thoughts. The theory also proposes that voluntary actions are driven by neurons that receive EM field inputs and are thereby visible to our EM field-located thoughts. I review the extensive evidence for EM field/ephaptic coupling between neurons and the increasing evidence that EM fields in the brain are a cause of behaviour. I conclude by arguing that though this EM field-driven will is not free, in the sense of being acausal, it nevertheless corresponds to the very real experience of our conscious mind being in control of our voluntary actions. Will is not an illusion. It is our experience of control by our EM field-located mind. It is an immaterial, yet physical, will. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Neuroanatomy of Consciousness and the Will)
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Review
Octopus Consciousness: The Role of Perceptual Richness
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 276-290; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030020 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
It is always difficult to even advance possible dimensions of consciousness, but Birch et al., 2020 have suggested four possible dimensions and this review discusses the first, perceptual richness, with relation to octopuses. They advance acuity, bandwidth, and categorization power as possible components. [...] Read more.
It is always difficult to even advance possible dimensions of consciousness, but Birch et al., 2020 have suggested four possible dimensions and this review discusses the first, perceptual richness, with relation to octopuses. They advance acuity, bandwidth, and categorization power as possible components. It is first necessary to realize that sensory richness does not automatically lead to perceptual richness and this capacity may not be accessed by consciousness. Octopuses do not discriminate light wavelength frequency (color) but rather its plane of polarization, a dimension that we do not understand. Their eyes are laterally placed on the head, leading to monocular vision and head movements that give a sequential rather than simultaneous view of items, possibly consciously planned. Details of control of the rich sensorimotor system of the arms, with 3/5 of the neurons of the nervous system, may normally not be accessed to the brain and thus to consciousness. The chromatophore-based skin appearance system is likely open loop, and not available to the octopus’ vision. Conversely, in a laboratory situation that is not ecologically valid for the octopus, learning about shapes and extents of visual figures was extensive and flexible, likely consciously planned. Similarly, octopuses’ local place in and navigation around space can be guided by light polarization plane and visual landmark location and is learned and monitored. The complex array of chemical cues delivered by water and on surfaces does not fit neatly into the components above and has barely been tested but might easily be described as perceptually rich. The octopus’ curiosity and drive to investigate and gain more information may mean that, apart from richness of any stimulus situation, they are consciously driven to seek out more information. This review suggests that cephalopods may not have a similar type of intelligence as the ‘higher’ vertebrates, they may not have similar dimensions or contents of consciousness, but that such a capacity is present nevertheless. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Neuroanatomy of Consciousness and the Will)
Review
Personality Profile and Low Back Pain: Are Clinicians Missing an Important Factor That Influences Pain Perception and Treatment Options?
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 266-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030019 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Personality type can influence pain perception and prognosis. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to consider personality factors that may influence outcomes and understand personality inventories to garner a better understanding of how an individual may perceive pain. This paper explores different elements [...] Read more.
Personality type can influence pain perception and prognosis. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to consider personality factors that may influence outcomes and understand personality inventories to garner a better understanding of how an individual may perceive pain. This paper explores different elements that contribute to low back pain (LBP) and evaluates a personality inventory reported in the medical literature. Understanding how to evaluate personality type as well as how to approach clinical interactions based on personality may help to provide context for the unique needs of individual patients when developing a plan of care to treat LBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Neuroanatomy of Consciousness and the Will)
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Review
Treating Traumatic Brain Injuries with Electroceuticals: Implications for the Neuroanatomy of Consciousness
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 254-265; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030018 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1499
Abstract
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of loss of consciousness, long-term disability, and death in children and young adults (age 1 to 44). Currently, there are no United States Food and [...] Read more.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of loss of consciousness, long-term disability, and death in children and young adults (age 1 to 44). Currently, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmacological treatments for post-TBI regeneration and recovery, particularly related to permanent disability and level of consciousness. In some cases, long-term disorders of consciousness (DoC) exist, including the vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) characterized by the exhibition of reflexive behaviors only or a minimally conscious state (MCS) with few purposeful movements and reflexive behaviors. Electroceuticals, including non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have proved efficacious in some patients with TBI and DoC. In this review, we examine how electroceuticals have improved our understanding of the neuroanatomy of consciousness. However, the level of improvements in general arousal or basic bodily and visual pursuit that constitute clinically meaningful recovery on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) remain undefined. Nevertheless, these advancements demonstrate the importance of the vagal nerve, thalamus, reticular activating system, and cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical loop in the process of consciousness recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Neuroanatomy of Consciousness and the Will)
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Review
Fluoroquinolones-Associated Disability: It Is Not All in Your Head
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 235-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030017 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 3897
Abstract
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a broad class of antibiotics typically prescribed for bacterial infections, including infections for which their use is discouraged. The FDA has proposed the existence of a permanent disability (Fluoroquinolone Associated Disability; FQAD), which is yet to be formally recognized. Previous [...] Read more.
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a broad class of antibiotics typically prescribed for bacterial infections, including infections for which their use is discouraged. The FDA has proposed the existence of a permanent disability (Fluoroquinolone Associated Disability; FQAD), which is yet to be formally recognized. Previous studies suggest that FQs act as selective GABAA receptor inhibitors, preventing the binding of GABA in the central nervous system. GABA is a key regulator of the vagus nerve, involved in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) function. Indeed, GABA is released from the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius (NTS) to the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the vagus (DMV) to tonically regulate vagal activity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on FQs in the context of the vagus nerve and examine how these drugs could lead to dysregulated signaling to the GI tract. Since there is sufficient evidence to suggest that GABA transmission is hindered by FQs, it is reasonable to postulate that the vagal circuit could be compromised at the NTS-DMV synapse after FQ use, possibly leading to the development of permanent GI disorders in FQAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Neurosci 2021)
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