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Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol in Ischemic Brain Injury

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Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA, Argentina
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Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos y Química Aplicada (IPQA-UNC-CONICET), Av. Vélez Sarsfield 1611, Córdoba X5016GCA, Argentina
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Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica Antonio González, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda, Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
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Instituto de Investigaciones en Físico-Química de Córdoba (INFIQC-CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA, Argentina
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Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez S/N, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
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Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masato Nakafuku
NeuroSci 2021, 2(3), 305-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030022
Received: 1 August 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 1 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Neurosci 2021)
Cerebral ischemia represents the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in adults. This process results from decreasing cerebral blood flow levels as a result of the occlusion of a major cerebral artery. This restriction in blood supply generates low levels of oxygen and glucose, which leads to a decrease in the energy metabolism of the cell, producing inflammation, and finally, neurological deterioration. Currently, blood restoration of flow is the only effective approach as a therapy in terms of ischemic stroke. However, a significant number of patients still have a poor prognosis, probably owing to the increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the reperfusion of damaged tissue. Oxidative stress and inflammation can be avoided by modulating mitochondrial function and have been identified as potential targets for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. In recent years, the beneficial actions of flavonoids and polyphenols against cerebrovascular diseases have been extensively investigated. The use of resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to markedly decrease brain damage caused by ischemia in numerous studies. According to in vitro and in vivo experiments, there is growing evidence that RSV is involved in several pathways, including cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 regulation, JAK/ERK/STAT signaling pathway modulation, TLR4 signal transduction regulation, gut/brain axis modulation, GLUT3 up-regulation inhibition, neuronal autophagy activation, and de novo SUR1 expression inhibition. In this review, we summarize the recent outcomes based on the neuroprotective effect of RSV itself and RSV-loaded nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo models focusing on such mechanisms of action as well as describing the potential therapeutic strategies in which RSV plays an active role in cases of ischemic brain injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood–brain barrier; brain; ischemia; neuroprotection; oxidative stress; polyphenols; reperfusion; resveratrol; therapy blood–brain barrier; brain; ischemia; neuroprotection; oxidative stress; polyphenols; reperfusion; resveratrol; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Machado, N.D.; Armas, G.V.; Fernández, M.A.; Grijalvo, S.; Díaz Díaz, D. Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol in Ischemic Brain Injury. NeuroSci 2021, 2, 305-319. https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030022

AMA Style

Machado ND, Armas GV, Fernández MA, Grijalvo S, Díaz Díaz D. Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol in Ischemic Brain Injury. NeuroSci. 2021; 2(3):305-319. https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Machado, Noelia D., Gorka V. Armas, Mariana A. Fernández, Santiago Grijalvo, and David Díaz Díaz. 2021. "Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol in Ischemic Brain Injury" NeuroSci 2, no. 3: 305-319. https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci2030022

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