# Design and Performance Analysis of an In-Band Full-Duplex MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- An IBFD MAC protocol is proposed for the ad hoc network named AdHoc-FDMAC, where all nodes are FDNs.
- This MAC describes all possible types of IBFD communications.
- The performance analyses are performed in terms of probability analysis, throughput analysis and routing time.
- The throughput of this AdHoc-FDMAC is compared with a recently published ad hoc MAC protocol as well as with the conventional HD communications. The AdHoc-FDMAC significantly outperforms the existing ad hoc MAC that uses IBFD communications.
- The simulation result shows that the routing time is significantly lower than that of the conventional FD communications.

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. Proposed MAC Protocol: AdHoc-FDMAC

#### 3.1. Control Frame

#### 3.2. Data Transmission

- Transmitter and receiver are out of the data transmission range;
- Transmitter and receiver are within the data transmission range.

#### 3.2.1. Transmitter and Receiver Are out of the Data Transmission Range

#### 3.2.2. Transmitter and Receiver Are within the Data Transmission Range

- BFD communications;
- TNFD communications.

#### BFD Communications

#### TNFD Communications

#### Source-Based TNFD Communications

#### Destination-Based TNFD Communications

## 4. Mathematical Analysis

#### 4.1. Probability Analysis

#### 4.1.1. Probability Equation for BFD Communications

- The conditional probability that the PT (or MS) has a data packet for PR is $\frac{m\left(n-1\right)\lambda}{{\lambda}_{tot}}$.
- The probability that the corresponding PR has at least one data packet for PT in time ${T}_{1}={T}_{RTS}+{T}_{S}+{T}_{WAIT}$ is $\left(1-{e}^{-\lambda {T}_{1}}\right)$.

#### 4.1.2. Probability Equation for TNFD Communications

#### Source-Based TNFD Communications

- The conditional probability that PT has data packet for PR is $\frac{m\left(n-1\right)\lambda}{{\lambda}_{tot}}$.
- The probability that the corresponding PR does not have data for corresponding PT in time ${T}_{1}$ is $\left({e}^{-\lambda {T}_{1}}\right)$.
- The nodes (ST) that are hidden to the PR have minimum one data packet for the PT in time ${T}_{2}$ (where, ${T}_{2}={T}_{RTS}+{T}_{CTS-AI}+{T}_{NF}+2{T}_{S}+{T}_{WAIT}$) is $\left\{1-\left({e}^{-\left(\alpha m\left(n-2\right)\lambda {T}_{2}\right)}\right)\right\}$.

#### Destination Based TNFD Communications

- The conditional probability that the PT has data for PR is $\frac{m\left(n-1\right)\lambda}{{\lambda}_{tot}}$.
- The probability that the corresponding PR does not have data for the PT in time ${T}_{1}$ is $\left({e}^{-\lambda {T}_{1}}\right)$.
- The probability that the PR (it acts as ST also) has minimum one data packet in time ${T}_{1}$ for any other node that is hidden from PT and is in the range of PR is $\left\{1-\left({e}^{-\left(m\left(n-2\right)\lambda {T}_{1}\right)}\right)\right\}\alpha $.

#### 4.2. Throughput Calculation

## 5. Result and Performance Analysis

#### 5.1. Probability Analysis

#### 5.2. Throughput Analysis

#### 5.3. Routing Time

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

ACK | Acknowledgement |

ACK-E | Acknowledgement with Next Relay Address to E |

ACK-R | Acknowledgement with Next Relay Address to R |

ALMS | Analog Least Mean Square |

AODV | Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector |

AP | Access Point |

BFD | Bidirectional Full Duplex |

BS | Base Station |

CFFD | Collision-free FD |

CTS | Clear to Send |

CTS-AI | CTS with Acknowledgement Indicator |

CTS-SRA | CTS with Secondary Receiver Address |

DATA-E | Data from E |

DATA-R | Data from R |

DCF | Distributed Coordination Function |

DIFS | Distributed Inter-frame Space |

DL | Downlink |

DTNFD | Destination-Based TNFD |

FD | Full Duplex |

FD-MMAC | Full Duplex Multi-channel MAC |

FDNs | Full Duplex Nodes |

HD | Half Duplex |

HDNs | Half Duplex Nodes |

IBFD | In-band Full-duplex |

IFFD | Interference Free Full Duplex |

IUI | Inter-user–interference |

MAC | Medium Access Control |

MS | Monitoring Station |

NAV | Network Allocation Vector |

NAV(CTS) | NAV for CTS |

NAV(CTS-AI) | NAV for CTS-AI |

NAV(CTS-SRA) | NAV for CTS-SRA |

NAV(RTS) | NAV for RTS |

OFDM | Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing |

PGR | Packet Generation Rate |

PR | Primary Receiver |

PT | Primary Transmitter |

RREP | Route Reply |

RREP-E | Route Reply from MS to E |

RREP-R | Route Reply from C to R |

RREQ | Route Request |

RREQ-C | Route Request from R to C |

RREQ-MS | Route Request from E to MS |

RTS | Request to Send |

SIFS | Short Inter-frame Space |

SR | Secondary Receiver |

ST | Secondary Transmitter |

STNFD | Source-Based TNFD |

TNFD | Three Node Full Duplex |

UL | Uplink |

WLAN | Wireless Local Area Network |

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**Figure 1.**Different types of IBFD transmission: (

**a**) BFD, (

**b**) destination-based TNFD, (

**c**) source-based TNFD.

**Figure 2.**Proposed network model for AdHoc-FDMAC. The single alphabets in the figure are node labels.

**Figure 4.**FD data transmission when transmitter and receiver nodes are out of the range between each other; (

**a**) route selection process; (

**b**) data transmission process.

**Figure 6.**Time sequence of the proposed MAC for source-based TNFD (the rest of the nodes except MS initiate the transmission).

**Figure 7.**Time sequence of the proposed MAC for destination-based TNFD (the rest of the nodes except MS initiate the transmission).

Symbol of the Variable | Description of the Variable |
---|---|

$n$ | Total number of nodes including MS |

M | Percentage of average number of nodes within a node’s transmission range |

$\lambda $ | PGR by each node |

${\lambda}_{tot}=n\lambda $ | Total PGR |

$\alpha $ | Percentage of total hidden nodes |

${T}_{RTS}$ | Time duration for RTS frame |

${T}_{CTS-AI}$ | Time duration for CTS-AI frame |

${T}_{CTS-SRA}$ | Time duration for CTS-SRA |

${T}_{ACK}$ | Time duration for acknowledgement frame |

${T}_{S}$ | Time duration for short interframe space (SIFS) |

${T}_{data}$ | Time duration for data packet |

${P}_{BFD}$ | Probability of BFD communications |

${P}_{STNFD}$ | Probability of STNFD communications |

${P}_{DTNFD}$ | Probability of DTNFD communications |

${P}_{TNFD}={P}_{STNFD}+{P}_{DTNFD}$ | Total probability for TNFD communications |

${L}_{UP}$ | Uplink data length |

${L}_{DW}$ | Downlink data length |

$T{h}_{BFD}$ | Throughput for BFD communication |

$T{h}_{S-TNFD}$ | Throughput for STNFD communication |

$T{h}_{D-TNFD}$ | Throughput for DTNFD communication |

$T{h}_{HD}$ | Throughput for HD communication |

${T}_{BFD}$ | Transmission time for BFD communication |

${T}_{S-TNFD}$ | Transmission time for STNFD communication |

${T}_{D-TNFD}$ | Transmission time for DTNFD communication |

${T}_{HD}$ | Transmission time for HD communication |

${T}_{D}$ | Transmission time for uplink or downlink data |

${T}_{RT}$ | Time of random timer |

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Packet length | 1500 bytes |

Data rate | 54 Mbps |

Control frame (RTS, CTS-AI, etc.) rate | 12 Mbps |

RTS | 20 bytes |

CTS-AI | 14.125 bytes |

ACK | 14 bytes |

RREQ | 21 bytes |

RREP | 17 bytes |

DIFS time | 28 µs |

SIFS time | 10 µs |

Time slot | 9 μs |

PLCP preamble duration | 16 µs |

PLCP header duration | 4 µs |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Rahman, M.A.; Rahman, M.M.; Alim, M.A.
Design and Performance Analysis of an In-Band Full-Duplex MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks. *Telecom* **2023**, *4*, 100-117.
https://doi.org/10.3390/telecom4010007

**AMA Style**

Rahman MA, Rahman MM, Alim MA.
Design and Performance Analysis of an In-Band Full-Duplex MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks. *Telecom*. 2023; 4(1):100-117.
https://doi.org/10.3390/telecom4010007

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Rahman, Md. Abdur, Md. Mizanur Rahman, and Md. Abdul Alim.
2023. "Design and Performance Analysis of an In-Band Full-Duplex MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks" *Telecom* 4, no. 1: 100-117.
https://doi.org/10.3390/telecom4010007