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Computer Modeling of the Heart for ECG Interpretation—A Review

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Macfarlane
Hearts 2021, 2(3), 350-368;
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 7 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Computer Techniques to ECG Interpretation)
Computer modeling of the electrophysiology of the heart has undergone significant progress. A healthy heart can be modeled starting from the ion channels via the spread of a depolarization wave on a realistic geometry of the human heart up to the potentials on the body surface and the ECG. Research is advancing regarding modeling diseases of the heart. This article reviews progress in calculating and analyzing the corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) from simulated depolarization and repolarization waves. First, we describe modeling of the P-wave, the QRS complex and the T-wave of a healthy heart. Then, both the modeling and the corresponding ECGs of several important diseases and arrhythmias are delineated: ischemia and infarction, ectopic beats and extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia, bundle branch blocks, atrial tachycardia, flutter and fibrillation, genetic diseases and channelopathies, imbalance of electrolytes and drug-induced changes. Finally, we outline the potential impact of computer modeling on ECG interpretation. Computer modeling can contribute to a better comprehension of the relation between features in the ECG and the underlying cardiac condition and disease. It can pave the way for a quantitative analysis of the ECG and can support the cardiologist in identifying events or non-invasively localizing diseased areas. Finally, it can deliver very large databases of reliably labeled ECGs as training data for machine learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: in silico; electrophysiology; electrocardiogram; ECG; cardiac disease; arrhythmia; ischemia in silico; electrophysiology; electrocardiogram; ECG; cardiac disease; arrhythmia; ischemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dössel, O.; Luongo, G.; Nagel, C.; Loewe, A. Computer Modeling of the Heart for ECG Interpretation—A Review. Hearts 2021, 2, 350-368.

AMA Style

Dössel O, Luongo G, Nagel C, Loewe A. Computer Modeling of the Heart for ECG Interpretation—A Review. Hearts. 2021; 2(3):350-368.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dössel, Olaf, Giorgio Luongo, Claudia Nagel, and Axel Loewe. 2021. "Computer Modeling of the Heart for ECG Interpretation—A Review" Hearts 2, no. 3: 350-368.

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