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Review

Applied Nanotechnologies in Anticoagulant Therapy: From Anticoagulants to Coagulation Test Performance of Drug Delivery Systems

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Quality Control Core of Medicines and Correlates, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife 50740-521, PE, Brazil
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Bornova-Izmir 35100, Turkey
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Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (LNMed), Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Aracaju 49010-390, SE, Brazil
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Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), University of Tiradentes (Unit), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Aracaju 49010-390, SE, Brazil
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Tiradentes Institute, 150 Mt Vernon St, Dorchester, MA 02125, USA
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Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Maria Taglietti
Appl. Nano 2021, 2(2), 98-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2020009
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers for Applied Nano)
Heparin-based delivery systems have been explored to improve their therapeutic efficacy and to reduce toxicity for different administration routes. Regardless of the applied drug delivery system (DDS), the evaluation of anticoagulant performance is instrumental for the development of a suitable DDS. The understanding of the range of anticoagulant assays, together with their key applications and limitations, is essential both within the context of scientific research and for clinical usage. This review provides an overview of the current anticoagulant therapy and discusses the advantages and limitations of currently available anticoagulant assays. We also discuss studies involving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)-based nanocarriers with emphasis on their anticoagulation performance. Conventional anticoagulants have been used for decades for the treatment of many diseases. Direct oral anticoagulants have overcome some limitations of heparins and vitamin K antagonists. However, the lack of an accurate laboratory assessment, as well as the lack of a factor “xaban” (Xa) inhibitor reversal agent, remains a major problem associated with these anticoagulants. LMWHs represent anticoagulant agents with noteworthy efficacy and safety, and they have been explored to improve their outcomes with various nanocarriers through several administration routes. The main problems related to LMWHs have been surmounted, and improved efficiency may be achieved through the use of DDSs. View Full-Text
Keywords: heparin; anticoagulant drugs; drug delivery systems; anticoagulant assays heparin; anticoagulant drugs; drug delivery systems; anticoagulant assays
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patriota, Y.B.G.; Chaves, L.L.; Gocke, E.H.; Severino, P.; Soares, M.F.R.; Soares-Sobrinho, J.L.; Souto, E.B. Applied Nanotechnologies in Anticoagulant Therapy: From Anticoagulants to Coagulation Test Performance of Drug Delivery Systems. Appl. Nano 2021, 2, 98-117. https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2020009

AMA Style

Patriota YBG, Chaves LL, Gocke EH, Severino P, Soares MFR, Soares-Sobrinho JL, Souto EB. Applied Nanotechnologies in Anticoagulant Therapy: From Anticoagulants to Coagulation Test Performance of Drug Delivery Systems. Applied Nano. 2021; 2(2):98-117. https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2020009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patriota, Yuri B.G., Luíse L. Chaves, Evren H. Gocke, Patricia Severino, Mônica F.R. Soares, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, and Eliana B. Souto 2021. "Applied Nanotechnologies in Anticoagulant Therapy: From Anticoagulants to Coagulation Test Performance of Drug Delivery Systems" Applied Nano 2, no. 2: 98-117. https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2020009

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