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Review

Crystal Structure and Preparation of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) Solid-State Electrolyte and Doping Impacts on the Conductivity: An Overview

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
2
The Materials and Nanotechnology Program, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masato Sone
Electrochem 2021, 2(3), 390-414; https://doi.org/10.3390/electrochem2030026
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Electrochemistry)
As an essential part of solid-state lithium-ion batteries, solid electrolytes are receiving increasing interest. Among all solid electrolytes, garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) has proven to be one of the most promising electrolytes because of its high ionic conductivity at room temperature, low activation energy, good chemical and electrochemical stability, and wide potential window. Since the first report of LLZO, extensive research has been done in both experimental investigations and theoretical simulations aiming to improve its performance and make LLZO a feasible solid electrolyte. These include developing different methods for the synthesis of LLZO, using different crucibles and different sintering temperatures to stabilize the crystal structure, and adopting different methods of cation doping to achieve more stable LLZO with a higher ionic conductivity and lower activation energy. It also includes intensive efforts made to reveal the mechanism of Li ion movement and understand its determination of the ionic conductivity of the material through molecular dynamic simulations. Nonetheless, more insightful study is expected in order to obtain LLZO with a higher ionic conductivity at room temperature and further improve chemical and electrochemical stability, while optimal multiple doping is thought to be a feasible and promising route. This review summarizes recent progress in the investigations of crystal structure and preparation of LLZO, and the impacts of doping on the lithium ionic conductivity of LLZO. View Full-Text
Keywords: LLZO; solid-state electrolyte; first-principles computing; synthesis; doping; lithium ionic conductivity LLZO; solid-state electrolyte; first-principles computing; synthesis; doping; lithium ionic conductivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raju, M.M.; Altayran, F.; Johnson, M.; Wang, D.; Zhang, Q. Crystal Structure and Preparation of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) Solid-State Electrolyte and Doping Impacts on the Conductivity: An Overview. Electrochem 2021, 2, 390-414. https://doi.org/10.3390/electrochem2030026

AMA Style

Raju MM, Altayran F, Johnson M, Wang D, Zhang Q. Crystal Structure and Preparation of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) Solid-State Electrolyte and Doping Impacts on the Conductivity: An Overview. Electrochem. 2021; 2(3):390-414. https://doi.org/10.3390/electrochem2030026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raju, Md M., Fadhilah Altayran, Michael Johnson, Danling Wang, and Qifeng Zhang. 2021. "Crystal Structure and Preparation of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) Solid-State Electrolyte and Doping Impacts on the Conductivity: An Overview" Electrochem 2, no. 3: 390-414. https://doi.org/10.3390/electrochem2030026

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