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From Microcars to Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Vehicle Performance Comparison of Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

Centre for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research (IN+), Associação Para o Desenvolvimento do Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
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Academic Editor: Teresa Donateo
Vehicles 2021, 3(4), 691-720; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles3040041
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Storage Systems for Electric Vehicles)
Low vehicle occupancy rates combined with record conventional vehicle sales justify the requirement to optimize vehicle type based on passengers and a powertrain with zero-emissions. This study compares the performance of different vehicle types based on the number of passengers/payloads, powertrain configuration (battery and fuel cell electric configurations), and drive cycles, to assess range and energy consumption. An adequate choice of vehicle segment according to the real passenger occupancy enables the least energy consumption. Vehicle performance in terms of range points to remarkable results for the FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) compared to BEV (battery electric vehicle), where the former reached an average range of 600 km or more in all different drive cycles, while the latter was only cruising nearly 350 km. Decisively, the cost analysis indicated that FCEV remains the most expensive option with base cost three-fold that of BEV. The FCEV showed notable results with an average operating cost of less than 7 cents/km, where BEV cost more than 10 €/km in addition to the base cost for light-duty vehicles. The cost analysis for a bus and semi-truck showed that with a full payload, FCPT (fuel cell powertrain) would be more economical with an average energy cost of ~1.2 €/km, while with BPT the energy cost is more than 300 €/km. View Full-Text
Keywords: powertrain simulation; EV vehicle performance; vehicle segments; occupancy; payload; drive cycle analysis powertrain simulation; EV vehicle performance; vehicle segments; occupancy; payload; drive cycle analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sagaria, S.; Moreira, A.; Margarido, F.; Baptista, P. From Microcars to Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Vehicle Performance Comparison of Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles. Vehicles 2021, 3, 691-720. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles3040041

AMA Style

Sagaria S, Moreira A, Margarido F, Baptista P. From Microcars to Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Vehicle Performance Comparison of Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles. Vehicles. 2021; 3(4):691-720. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles3040041

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sagaria, Shemin, António Moreira, Fernanda Margarido, and Patricia Baptista. 2021. "From Microcars to Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Vehicle Performance Comparison of Battery and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles" Vehicles 3, no. 4: 691-720. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles3040041

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