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Open AccessArticle

Identification of the Optimal Passenger Car Vehicle Fleet Transition for Mitigating the Cumulative Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions until 2050

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Sciences, Institute IWAR, Chair of Material Flow Management and Resource Economy, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vehicles 2020, 2(1), 75-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles2010005
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 24 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Powertrain Technologies)
We present an optimization model for the passenger car vehicle fleet transition—the time-dependent fleet composition—in Germany until 2050. The goal was to minimize the cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the vehicle fleet taking into account life-cycle assessment (LCA) data. LCAs provide information on the global warming potential (GWP) of different powertrain concepts. Meta-analyses of batteries, of different fuel types, and of the German energy sector are conducted to support the model. Furthermore, a sensitivity-analysis is performed on four key influence parameters: the battery production emissions trend, the German energy sector trend, the hydrogen production path trend, and the mobility sector trend. Overall, we draw the conclusion that—in any scenario—future vehicles should have a plug-in option, allowing their usage as fully or partly electrical vehicles. For short distance trips, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with a small battery size are the most reasonable choice throughout the transition. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) emerge as promising long-range capable solution. Starting in 2040, long-range capable BEVs and fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (FCPHEVs) have similar life-cycle emissions as PHEV-CNG. View Full-Text
Keywords: fleet transition; optimization; life-cycle assessment; greenhouse gas; global warming potential; vehicle powertrain concepts fleet transition; optimization; life-cycle assessment; greenhouse gas; global warming potential; vehicle powertrain concepts
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Blat Belmonte, B.; Esser, A.; Weyand, S.; Franke, G.; Schebek, L.; Rinderknecht, S. Identification of the Optimal Passenger Car Vehicle Fleet Transition for Mitigating the Cumulative Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions until 2050. Vehicles 2020, 2, 75-99.

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