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Review

Challenges and Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: A Systematic Review

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Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano-700233, Kano PMB 3452, Nigeria
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Department of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, University Way, London E16 2RD, UK
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National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja 09004, Nigeria
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Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kofar Kansakali-700282, Kano PMB 3220, Nigeria
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano 700233, Nigeria
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna 800283, Nigeria
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Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano 700233, Nigeria
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Unit it of Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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Instituto Odontologico das Américas (IOA-Pelotas), 1399—Centro, Pelotas 96020-360, RS, Brazil
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Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Karnavati School of Dentistry, Karnavati University, 907/A, Uvarsad, Gandhinagar 382422, Gujarat, India
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Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eswatini Medical Christian University, P.O. Box A624, Swazi Plaza Mbabane, Mbabane H101, Hhohho, Eswatini
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Department of Pharmacology and Public Health, School of Medicine, American University of Integrative Sciences (AUIS), Bridgetown BB 11114, Barbados
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Department of Physiology, Khulna City Medical College and Hospital, 33 KDA Avenue, Hotel Royal Mor, Khulna Sadar, Khulna 9100, Bangladesh
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Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mosad Zineldin
Psych 2022, 4(3), 435-464; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030035 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 June 2022 / Revised: 27 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 1 August 2022
The measures put in place to contain the rapid spread of COVID-19 infection, such as quarantine, self-isolation, and lockdown, were supportive but have significantly affected the mental wellbeing of individuals. The primary goal of this study was to review the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. An intensive literature search was conducted using PsycINFO, PsyciatryOnline, PubMed, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Articles published between January 2020 and June 2022 were retrieved and appraised. Reviews and retrospective studies were excluded. One hundred and twenty-two (122) relevant articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were finally selected. A high prevalence of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress disorders was reported. Alcohol and substance abuse, domestic violence, stigmatization, and suicidal tendencies have all been identified as direct consequences of lockdown. The eminent risk factors for mental health disorders identified during COVID-19 include fear of infection, history of mental illness, poor financial status, female gender, and alcohol drinking. The protective factors for mental health include higher income levels, public awareness, psychological counseling, social and government support. Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a number of mental disorders in addition to economic hardship. This strongly suggests the need to monitor the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; mental health; COVID-19; lockdown; anxiety; depression; stress pandemic; mental health; COVID-19; lockdown; anxiety; depression; stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rabiu Abubakar, A.; Tor, M.A.; Ogidigo, J.; Sani, I.H.; Rowaiye, A.B.; Ramalan, M.A.; Najib, S.Y.; Danbala, A.; Adamu, F.; Abdullah, A.; Irfan, M.; Kumar, S.; Etando, A.; Rahman, S.; Sinha, S.; Haque, M. Challenges and Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Psych 2022, 4, 435-464. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030035

AMA Style

Rabiu Abubakar A, Tor MA, Ogidigo J, Sani IH, Rowaiye AB, Ramalan MA, Najib SY, Danbala A, Adamu F, Abdullah A, Irfan M, Kumar S, Etando A, Rahman S, Sinha S, Haque M. Challenges and Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Psych. 2022; 4(3):435-464. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rabiu Abubakar, Abdullahi, Maryam Abba Tor, Joyce Ogidigo, Ibrahim Haruna Sani, Adekunle Babajide Rowaiye, Mansur Aliyu Ramalan, Sani Yahaya Najib, Ahmed Danbala, Fatima Adamu, Adnan Abdullah, Mohammed Irfan, Santosh Kumar, Ayukafangha Etando, Sayeeda Rahman, Susmita Sinha, and Mainul Haque. 2022. "Challenges and Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: A Systematic Review" Psych 4, no. 3: 435-464. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030035

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