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Effect of pH, Surfactant, and Temperature on Mixed-Phase Structure and Band Gap Properties of BiNbO4 Nanoparticles Prepared Using Different Routes

Department of Chemistry, UAE University, P.O. Box 15551, Al-Ain, UAE
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Chemistry 2019, 1(1), 89-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry1010008
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 28 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nanoscale Science)
α- and β-BiNbO4 nanoparticles were successfully prepared using three different routes, namely co-precipitation, hydrothermal, and citrate precursor methods. Structural characterization has been analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction where results confirmed the mixed-phase nature of the prepared powders. When co-precipitation method is applied, BiNbO4 prepared at pH 2 and calcined at 750 °C shows predominately the α-BiNbO4 owning the narrowest band gap of 2.86 eV, whereas an increase in the pH value resulted in the β-BiNbO4 phase being the predominant phase. On the other hand, samples prepared using citrate precursor method show co-existence of both α- and β-BiNbO4 at all pH values under study; however, at pH 10 the β-BiNbO4 was the dominant phase exhibiting a higher bandgap energy value of 3.16 eV. When applying the hydrothermal approach, BiNbO4 prepared at all pH ranges of the present study show a band gap >3.2 eV indicating their activity in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Moreover, increasing calcination temperature to 900 °C, a gradual transformation of α- to β was observed. Lastly, it was noticed that as the lattice volume increases, the band gap of prepared BiNbO4 decreases. View Full-Text
Keywords: BiNbO4; co-precipitation; hydrothermal; citrate precursor; bandgap; visible light BiNbO4; co-precipitation; hydrothermal; citrate precursor; bandgap; visible light
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Bakiro, M.; Hussein Ahmed, S.; Alzamly, A. Effect of pH, Surfactant, and Temperature on Mixed-Phase Structure and Band Gap Properties of BiNbO4 Nanoparticles Prepared Using Different Routes. Chemistry 2019, 1, 89-110.

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