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Kinetic Freeze-Out Properties from Transverse Momentum Spectra of Pions in High Energy Proton-Proton Collisions

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Institute of Theoretical Physics & State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
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Physics 2020, 2(2), 277-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2020015
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Statistical Approaches in High Energy Physics)
Transverse momentum spectra of negative and positive pions produced at mid-(pseudo)rapidity in inelastic or non-single-diffractive proton-proton collisions over a center-of-mass energy, s , range from a few GeV to above 10 TeV are analyzed by the blast-wave fit with Boltzmann (Tsallis) distribution. The blast-wave fit results are well fitting to the experimental data measured by several collaborations. In a particular superposition with Hagedorn function, both the excitation functions of kinetic freeze-out temperature ( T 0 ) of emission source and transverse flow velocity ( β T ) of produced particles obtained from a given selection in the blast-wave fit with Boltzmann distribution have a hill at s 10 GeV, a drop at dozens of GeV, and then an increase from dozens of GeV to above 10 TeV. However, both the excitation functions of T 0 and β T obtained in the blast-wave fit with Tsallis distribution do not show such a complex structure, but a very low hill. In another selection for the parameters or in the superposition with the usual step function, T 0 and β T increase generally quickly from a few GeV to about 10 GeV and then slightly at above 10 GeV, there is no such the complex structure, when also studying nucleus-nucleus collisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: excitation function of kinetic freeze-out temperature; excitation function of transverse flow velocity; proton–proton collisions excitation function of kinetic freeze-out temperature; excitation function of transverse flow velocity; proton–proton collisions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, L.-L.; Liu, F.-H. Kinetic Freeze-Out Properties from Transverse Momentum Spectra of Pions in High Energy Proton-Proton Collisions. Physics 2020, 2, 277-308. https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2020015

AMA Style

Li L-L, Liu F-H. Kinetic Freeze-Out Properties from Transverse Momentum Spectra of Pions in High Energy Proton-Proton Collisions. Physics. 2020; 2(2):277-308. https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2020015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Li-Li, and Fu-Hu Liu. 2020. "Kinetic Freeze-Out Properties from Transverse Momentum Spectra of Pions in High Energy Proton-Proton Collisions" Physics 2, no. 2: 277-308. https://doi.org/10.3390/physics2020015

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